EFIKASI GURU DALAM MENGAJAR PENCEGAHAN KEKERASAN SEKSUAL ANAK

Fatma Kusuma Mahanani, Ira Paramastri

Abstract


Abstrak. 

Semua anak berisiko mengalami Kekerasan Seksual Anak (KSA).Pencegahan berbasis sekolah yang melibatkan guru sekolah dasar merupakan salah satu upaya strategis dalam mencegah KSA.Namun, guru sekolah dasar negeri di Kota Yogyakarta mengalami kesulitan untuk menjadi agen pencegahan KSA karena keterbatasan pengetahuan dan merasa kurang yakin akan kemampuannya mengajarkan pencegahan KSA. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan efikasi mengajar pencegahan KSA pada guru sekolah dasar negeri melalui Program “Jari Peri” (Guru Ajari Perlindungan Diri).Metode yang digunakan adalah Metode Kuantitatif dengan The Untreated Control Group Design with Pretest and Posttest.Subjek penelitian adalah 18 guru sekolah dasar negeri, 9 guru sebagai kelompok eksperimen dan 9 lainnya sebagai kelompok kontrol. Instrumen penelitian yang digunakan adalah tes pengetahuan program “Jari Peri” dan skala efikasi mengajarkan pencegahan KSA. Analisis data menggunakan disain Anava Mix.Hipotesis penelitian ini adalah program “Jari Peri” dapat meningkatkan efikasimengajar pencegahan KSA pada guru sekolah dasar negeri. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa program “Jari Peri” efektif meningkatkan efikasi mengajar pencegahan KSA pada guru sekolah dasar negeri dengan p<0,05. Efikasi mengajar pencegahan KSA kelompok eksperimen p<0,05 lebih tinggi daripada kelompok kontrol p>0,05.

Abstract. 

Every child is prone to Child Sexual Abuse (CSA). The school-based prevention involving elementary school teachers is one of the strategic efforts to prevent CSA. However, teachers of public elementary school in the City of Yogyakarta found it difficult to be the agents of CSA prevention due to their insufficiency in terms of knowledge and confidence to teach CSA prevention. This study was aimed at improving efficacy in teaching child sexual abuse prevention for teachers of public elementary school through “Jari Peri”

 

(Guru Ajari Perlindungan Diri – Self Protection Instructed by Teachers) program. The method used was a Quantitative Method using Untreated Control Group Design with Pretest and Posttest. The subjects were 18 teachers of public elementary school; 9 of them in experiment group and 9 others in the control group. The instrument used in this study was the test on the knowledge about “Jari Peri” and efficacy scales in CSA teaching. The researcher used Anava Mix design to analyse the data. The hypothesis of this study was that the “Jari Peri” program can improve the efficacy in teaching the prevention of CSA for teachers of public elementary school. The results showed that “Jari Peri” program was effective in improving the teaching efficacy on the prevention of CSA for teachers of public elementary school p<0,05. The efficacy in teaching of CSA in the experiment group p<0,05 was higher than the one in the control group p>0,05.


Keywords


children sexual abuse, primary prevention,teaching efficacy

References


Abdullah. (2013). Waspadalah, Tren Kekerasan Seksual pada Anak Meningkat.http://megapolitan.kompas.com/read/2013/03/15/02540245/Waspadalah.Tren.Kekerasan.Seksual.pad a.Anak.Meningkat, diakses pada tanggal 15 Maret 2013.

Aditya, B. (2013). Hingga Maret 2013 KPAI Catat 919 Kasus Kekerasan Terhadap Anak.http://www.dakta.com/berita/na sional/40832/hingga-maret-2013-kpai-catat-919-kasus-kekerasan-terhadap-anak.html/, diakses pada tanggal 19 Maret 2013.

Alaggia, R. (2004). Many ways of telling: expanding conceptualizations of child sexual abuse disclosure. Child Abuse & Neglect, 28, 1213–1227.

Akhdanelly, R. (2007). Efektivitas Metode Diskusi Kasus Dalam Meningkatkan Pengetahuan Remaja Tentang Penyakit Menular Seksual Dan HIV/AIDS DI Kota Bukittinggi.Tesis : Program Studi Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat Minat Utama Kesehatan Ibu dan Anak-Kesehatan Reproduksi, Sekolah Pasca Sarjana Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta. (Tidak diterbitkan).

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP).(2011). Facts for Families.Child Sexual Abuse, 226, 9.www.aacap.org, diakses pada tanggal 2 Februari 2013.

Angeles, M. (2012).Teaching Efficacy, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal Skills and Teaching Performance in the Tertiary School. IAMURE: International Journal of Social Science, 2, 2244-1514.

Ayres, L., Curdy, L.M., Bealle, K., Pasiert, S., Chandler, N., Reeves, C., Finkelhor, D., Saunders, B., Kornbluth, J., & Warrens, L. (2007). Seven Steps to Protecting Our Children, Darkness to Light.www.preventchildsexualabuse.o rg, diakses pada tanggal 2 Februari 2013.

Babatsikost, G. (2010). Parents‟ Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices about Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: A Literature Review. Child Abuse Review, 19, 107–129.

Badan Pemberdayaan Perempuan dan Masyarakat.(2011). Buku Data Pilah 2011. Yogyakarta: Badan Pemberdayaan Perempuan dan Masyarakat.

Badan Pemberdayaan Perempuan dan Masyarakat.(2011). Buku Profil Gender dan Anak 2011. Yogyakarta: Badan Pemberdayaan Perempuan dan Masyarakat.

Baginsky, M. & Hodgkison, K. (1999). Child protection training in initial teacher training: a survey of provision on institutions of higher education, Educational Research, 41, 2, 173-181.

Baginsky, M. (2000).Training teachers in child protection, Child Abuse Review, 9, 1, 74-81.

Baginsky, M. & Macpherson, P. (2005).Training Teachers to Safeguard Children: Developing a Consistent Approach. Child Abuse Review,14, 317–330.

Baginsky, M. (2007). Schools, Social Services and Safeguarding Children: Past practice and future challenges. NSPCC inform, The online child protection resource.www.nspcc.org.uk/inform, diakses pada tanggal 2 Februari 2013.

Bandura, A.(1977). Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall Inc.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self Efficacy: The Exercize of Control. New York: W.H Freeman and Company.

Bandura, A. (2002). Self-Efficacy in Changing Societies.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought & Action: Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall Inc.

Barron, I., Holmes, R., MacLure, M., & Runswick-Cole, K. (2007) Primary Schools and Other Agencies.Primary Review Research Survey 8/2. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Faculty of Education.

Barron, I.G., & Topping K.J. (2009).School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs : A Review of Effectiveness. Review of Educational Research, 79, 1, 431–463.

Barron, I.G., & Topping K.J. (2011).Sexual Abuse Prevention Programme Fidelity: Video Analysis of Interactions.Child Abuse Review, 20, 134–151.

Bloom, M. (1996). Primary Prevention Practises, Issues in Children's and Families' Lives Volume 5. California: Sage Publications.

Briere, J., & Elliot, M.D. (2003). Prevalence and psychological sequelae of self-reported childhood physical and sexual abuse in a generalpopulation sample of men and women. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27, 1205–1222.

Brown, G., & Manogue, M. (2001). AMEE Medical Education Guide: Refreshing lecturing: guide for lecturers. Medical Teacher, 23, 22, 231-244.

Campbell, D.T & Stanley,J.C. (2002). Experimental and Quasi-Experimental designs for research Rand Mc Nally & Company, Chicago

Cecen-Erogul, A.R. & Harisci, O.K. (2013). The Effectiveness of Psycho-educational School-based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Training Program on Turkish Elementary Students. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 13, 2, 725 – 729.

Cerit, J. (2010). Teacher Efficacy Scale: The Study Of Validity And Reliability And Preservice Classroom Teachers‟

Self Efficacy Beliefs. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 6, 1, 68-85.

Chen, J. Q., & Chen, D. G. (2005).Awareness of child sexual abuse prevention education among parents of Grade 3 elementary school pupils in Fuxin City, China.Health Education Research, 20, 5, 540–547.

Chena, J., Dunneb, M.P., & Hana, P. (2007). Prevention of child sexual abuse in China: Knowledge, attitudes, and communication practices of parents of elementary school children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31, 747–755.

Child Wise. (2013). Wise Up to Sexual Abuse: A Guide for Parents and Cares. www.childwise.net/resources/online_ publications.php, diakses 2 Februari 2013.

Costanzo, M. & Oskamp, S. (1994). Violence and the Law. United States of America: Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc.

Daro, D.A. (1994). The Future of Children: Sexual Abuse Of Children, 4, 2.

Data Statistik LPA Provinsi DIY. (2013). Yogyakarta: LPA Provinsi DIY

Data PPA POLDA DIY. (2013). Yogyakarta (tidak diterbitkan)

Fanslowa,J.L., Robinson, E.M., Crengle, S., & Perese, L. (2007). Prevalence of child sexual abuse reported by a cross-sectional sample of New Zealand women. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31, 935–945.

Field, A. (2005). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS. London: Sage Publications. Finkelhor, D. (2009). The Prevention of Childhood Sexual Abuse.The Future of Children, 19, 2, 169-194.

Guastaferro, K. M.; Lutzker, J. R.; Graham, M. L.; Shanley, J. R & Whitaker, D. J. (2012). SafeCare: Historical Perspective and Dynamic Development of an Evidence-Based Scaled-Up Model for the Prevention of Child Maltreatment. Psychosocial Intervention, 21, 2, 171-180.

Goldman, D.G.J. (2005). Student teachers learning about child sexual abuse strategies for primary school: an exploratory study of surface and deep learning. Sex education, 5, 1, 79-92.

Gullota, T.P & Bloom, M. (2003).Ensyclopedia of Primary Prevention and Health Promotion. New York : Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publiser.

Hadjam, M.N.R. & Widhiarso, W. (2011).Efikasi Mengajar Sebagai Mediator Peranan Faktor Kepribadian Terhadap Performansi Mengajar Guru.Humanitas, 8, 1.

Hayes, N. (2000). Doing psychological research.Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Kenny, M.C., Reena, R., Ryan, E.E., & Runyon, M.K. (2008). Child Sexual

Abuse : From Prevention to Self-Protection, 17, 36–54.

Kenny, M.C., & Wurtele, S.K. (2008). Toward prevention of childhood

sexual abuse: Preschoolers‟ knowledge of genital body parts. In M. S. Plakkhtonik & S. M. Nielsen (Eds), Proceedings of the Seventh Annual College of Education Research Conference: Urban and International Education Section, 74-79.Miami: Florida International University. Diakses melalui http://coeweb.fiu.edu/research_conference/

Kinnear, K.L. (2007). Childhood Social Abuse: A Reference Handbook, Second Edition. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, Inc.

Komisi Nasional Perlindungan Anak.(2011). Database Pelanggaran Hak Anak Tahun 2010. Jakarta: Komisi Nasional Perlindungan Anak.

Komisi Nasional Perlindungan Anak.(2011). Kompilasi Pantauan Pelanggaran Hak Anak Periode 2007-2009. Jakarta: Komisi Nasional Perlindungan Anak.

Krahe, B. & Knappert, L. (2009). A Group-Randomized Evaluation of a Theatre Based Sexual Abuse Prevention Programme for Primary School Children in Germany. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology J. Community Appl. Soc. Psychol., 19, 321–329.

Leech, N.L., Barret, K.C. & Morgan, G.A (2005). SPSS for Intermediate Statistics: Use and Interpretation. Second Edition. Marwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Lembaga Perlindungan Anak Provinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta.(2013). Kasus KSA yang Ditangani LPA Provinsi DIY Tahun 2001 sampai 2012. Yogyakarta: Lembaga Perlindungan Anak Provinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta.

Myers, J.E.B., Berliner, L., Briere, J., Hendrix, C.T., Jenny, C., Reid, T.A., editors. (2002). The APSAC handbook of child maltreatment. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks (CA): Sage Publications.

National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC). (2005). Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: A National Resource Directory and Handbook. www.nsvrc.org, diakses pada tanggal 2 Februari 2013.

National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC). (2011). Child Sexual Abuse Prevention and Risk Reduction: Literature Review for Parents & Guardians.www.nsvrc.org, diakses pada tanggal 2 Februari 2013.

National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC). (2011). Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Programs for Children Building an Evidence-Informed Approach. www.nsvrc.org, diakses pada tanggal 2 Februari 2013.

Olafson, E. (2011). Child Sexual Abuse: Demography, Impact, and Intervention. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 4, 8 – 21.

Ormrod, J.E. (2009). Psikologi Pendidikan:Membantu Siswa Tumbuh dan Berkembang. Edisi Keenam, Jilid Dua, (terjemahan). Jakarta: Erlangga.

Paramastri,I.; Prawitasari, J.E.; Prabandari, Y.S.; & Ekowarni, E. (2011). Guru Sekolah Dasar Sebagai Agen Pengubah Untuk Pencegahan Terhadap Kekerasan Seksual Pada Anak-anak. Jurnal Manajemen Pelayanan Kesehatan, 4, 2, 84-91.

Paramastri, I., Supriyati, Priyanto, M. A. (2010). Early Prevention Toward Sexual Abuse on Children. Jurnal Psikologi, 37, 1, 1-12.

Paramastri, I. (2011). Modifikasi Teori Transteoretikal Untuk Komunitas Anti Kekerasan Seksual Pada Anak-anak (KAKSA). Disertasi: Program Pascasarjana Universitas Gadjah Mada (Tidak diterbitkan).

Plummer, C.A. (2001). Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse: A Survey of 87 Programs. Violence and Victims, 16, 5.

Rowan, E. L. (2006).Understanding Child Sexual Abuse.United Stated of America: University Press of Mississipi.

Saka, M. & Surmeli, H. (2010).Examination of relationship between preservice science teachers‟ sense of efficacy and communication skills.Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 4722–4727.

Saul, J. & Audage, N. C. (2007).Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Within Youth-serving Organizations: Getting Started on Policies and Procedures. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.

Shadish, W.R., Cook, T.D., &Campbell, D.T. (2002).Experimental and quasiexperimental designed for generalized causal inference. New York :Houghton Mifflin Company.

Schunk, D.H. (2011). Learning Theories : An Educational Perspective. Boylston street, Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

Stop It Now. (2007). Do Children Sexually Abuse Other Children? Preventing Sexual Abuse among Children and Youth.www.stopitnow.org, diakses pada tanggal 2 Februari 2013.

Stop It Now. (2010). Prevent Child Sexual Abuse: Facts about sexual abuse and how to prevent it.www.stopitnow.org, diakses pada tanggal 2 Februari 2013.

Supratiknya, A. (1998). Psikometri. Yogyakarta: Pusat Penerbitan danPengembangan Sumber Belajar Fakultas Psikologi Universitas SanataDharma.

Supratiknya, A. (2011). Merancang Program dan Modul: Psikoedukasi. Yogyakarta: Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Tang, C. & Yan, E. (2004). Intention to participate in child sexual abuse prevention programs: a study of Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Child Abuse & Neglect,28 : 1187–1197.

The National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN). (2009). Child Sexual Abuse Fact Sheet : for Parents, teachers, and Other caregivers. www.NCTSN.org. Diakses pada tanggal 2 Februari 2013.

Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing and elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 783-805.

Undang-undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 23 Tahun 2002. www.pendidikan-diy.go.id/file/uu/uu_23_2002.pdf, diakses pada tanggal 8 Februari 2013.

Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. (1999). Childhood and Trauma: Separation, Abuse, War. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.

Walsh, M., & Major, J. (2011). Child sexual abuse: a new approach to professional education. Nursing Standard. 25, 37, 35-40.

Westcott, H.L., & Kyan, S. (2004). The application of a „story-telling‟ framework toinvestigative interviews for suspected child sexual abuse.Legal and Criminological Psychology.The British Psychological Society, 9, 37– 56.

Whitakera, D.J., Lea, B., Hansonb, R.K., Bakerg, C.K., McMahonc, P.M., Ryand, G., Kleine, A., & Ricef, D.D. (2008). Risk factors for the perpetration of child sexual abuse: A review and meta-analysis. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32, 529–548.

Wijayanti, S. (2013). Guru Sebagai Mediator Sosialisasi Kesehatan Reproduksi Pada Siswa SLTP. Tesis: Magister Psikologi Profesi Universitas Gadjah Mada (Tidak diterbitkan).

Wurtele, S.K., Moreno, T., & Kenny, M.C. (2008).Training and Prevention Issues: Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Workshop for Parents of Young Children. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 1, 331–340.

Wurtele, S.K. dan Kenny, M.C. (2010).Partnering with Parents to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse.Child Abuse Review, 19, 130-152.

Wurtele, S.K. dan Kenny, M.C. (2010).Children‟s abilities to recognize a “good” person as a potential perpetrator of childhood sexual abuse.Child Abuse & Neglect, 34, 490–495.


Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.15294/intuisi.v8i3.8668

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.