SPEECH FUNCTIONS AND GRAMMATICAL PATTERNS REALIZATION IN CONVERSATION IN THE ENGLISH TEXTBOOK

M. Arifuddin, Ahmad Sofwan

Abstract


Penelitian ini bertujuan menjelaskan realisasi fungsi tutur dan pola gramatikal teks percakapan pada buku teks bahasa Inggris dan menjelaskan kesesuaian antara jenis ungkapan dalam teks percakapan dengan fungsi kebahasaan yang terdapat dalam kompetensi dasar dari kurikulum. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif deskriptif dengan menggunakan bentuk analisis fungsional dan struktural yang dikembangkan oleh Eggins dan Slade (1997). Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa terdapat 253 fungsi tutur yang terealisasi dalam teks percakapan yaitu terdapat 75 (29.65%) fungsi pembuka percakapan, 90 (35.57) fungsi pelanjutan percakapan, dan 88 (34.78%) fungsi merespon pembuka percakapan. Selain itu, terdapat 278 jenis mood yang terdiri dari 148 (53%) bentuk deklaratif lengkap, 40 (14%) deklaratif tidak lengkap, 18 (6.5%) polar interogatif, 24 (8.5%) wh-interogatif, 8 (4%) imperatif, 6 (2%) eklamatif, dan 34 (12%) jenis klausa minor. Hasil penelitian ini juga menunjukkan bahwa terdapat 21 (87%) dari 24 jenis ungkapan dalam kompetensi dasar dan sebaliknya ada 3 (13%) jenis ungkapan yang tidak terdapat di dalam teks percakapan pada buku teks.

This study is aimed at explaining the realization of speech functions and grammatical patterns of conversational texts and the compatibility of some typical expressions with the basic competence of English curriculum. A descriptive qualitative approach by means of functional and structural analysis proposed by Eggins and Slade (1997) is used. The result show that there are 253 speech functions realized in the conversational texts consisting of 75 (29.65%) opening, 90 (35.57%) continuing, and 88 (34.78%) reacting. Additionally, the study show that there are 278 mood types used in the conversational texts. They comprise 148 (53%) declarative full, 40 (14%) elliptical declarative, 18 (6.5%) polar interrogative, 24 (8.5%) wh-interrogative, 8 (4%) imperative, 6 (2%) exclamative, 34 (12%) minor. The study also show that 21 (87%) typical expressions of the 24 total number of language function specified in the basic competence are introduced in the textbook whereas 3 (13%) expressions are not realized in the textbook.


Keywords


speech function, grammatical patterns, language function

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References


Eggins, S. and Slade, D. 1997. Analysing Casual Conversation. London: Cassell.

Halliday, M.A.K. 1994. An introduction to functional grammar. London: Edward Arnold.

Levinson, S. C. 1983. Pragmatics. London: Cambridge university Press.

Richard, J. 2001. Curriculum Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sulistyowati. 2010. The Speech Function in the Conversation between Fourth Semester English Department Students of Muria Kudus University and Foreigners. Unpublished thesis. Semarang state university.

Vellenga, H. 2004. Learning Pragmatics from ESL & EFL Textbooks: How Likely? TESL-EJ, 8 (2), 25-38.


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