Improving Silvofishery Management Through Seedling Growth Environment Quality Dynamic Relation Analysis

Endah Dwi Hastuti, Rini Budi Hastuti


Mangrove plants are sensitive to environment condition. This research aimed to analyze the linkages of mangrove growth and environment dynamics and to estimate the growth of mangrove along with the environment dynamics. The research was conducted through the field experiment by the plantation of A. marina in silvofishery pond canals. Data collection was conducted for 18 months with 3 months observation interval. The environment variables observed including temperature, salinity, turbidity, pH, dissolved oxygen, TSS, sediment organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus, and the growth of mangrove seedling. Analysis was conducted through regression and modelling with Powersim software. The result showed that the height growth was affected by dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, turbidity and pH, while the diameter growth was affected by TSS concentration. Inversely, the growth of mangrove also had a significant effect on temperature, change of organic matter and nutrient sediment concentration. Simulation showed that the height and diameter growth rates of A. marina seedling were dynamically changed among periods. Simulated seedling growth for one year forecast resulted in the rate of 0.115024 to 0.282294 cm/day for height and 0.001287 to 0.006031 cm/day for diameter. The simulation also indicated the continuous accumulation of organic matter and nitrogen over time. This research concluded that under limited environment dynamic, the growth of mangrove could be estimated. This model is a novelty in ecological studies. This research might initiates the more advanced ecological studies. Systematic estimation of ecosystem behaviour could be applied to formulate the best management practices, particularly in the silvofishery activities.


dynamic; environment; mangrove; model

Full Text:



Agunbiade, F. O., Olu-Owolabi, B. I., & Adebowale, K. O. (2010). Seasonal and Spatial Variations Analysis of Pollution Status of Ondo Coastal Environment Nigeria Using Principal Component Analysis. Geochemical Journal, 44(2), 89-98.

Alongi, D. M., Trott, L. A., Tirendi, F., McKinnon, A. D., & Undu, M. C. (2008). Growth and Development of Mangrove Forests Overlying Smothered Coral Reefs, Sulawesi and Sumatra, Indonesia. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 370, 97109.

Balke, T., Webb, E. L., Elzen, E. van den, Galli, D., Herman, P. M. J., & Bouma, T. J. (2013). Seedling Establishment in A Dynamic Sedimentary Environment: A Conceptual Framework Using Mangroves. Journal of Applied Ecology, 50(3), 740747.

Berger, U., Rivera-monroy, V. H., Doyle, T. W., Dahdouh-guebas, F., Duke, N. C., Fontalvo-herazo, M. L., Twilley, R. R. (2008). Advances and Limitations of Individual-Based Models to Analyze and Predict Dynamics of Mangrove Forests: A Review. Aquatic Botany, 89(2), 260274.

Biber, P. D. (2006). Measuring the effects of salinity stress in the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L . African Journal of Agricultural Research, 1(1), 14.

Cerco, C. F., & Noel, M. R. (2016). Impact of Reservoir Sediment Scour on Water Quality in a Downstream Estuary. Journal of Environmental Quality, 45(3), 894905.

Fabricius, K. E., Logan, M., Weeks, S., & Brodie, J. (2014). The Effects of River Run-Off on Water Clarity Across the Central Great Barrier Reef. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 84(12), 191200.

Feller, I. C., Lovelock, C. E., Berger, U., Mckee, K. L., Joye, S. B., & Ball, M. C. (2010). Biocomplexity in Mangrove Ecosystems. Annual Review of Marine Science, 2, 395417.

Genkai-Kato, M., Vadeboncoeur, Y., LIboriussen, L., & Jeppesen, E. (2012). BenthicPlanktonic Coupling, Regime Shifts, and Whole-Lake Primary Production in Shallow Lakes. Ecology, 93(3), 619631.

Gilman, E. L., Ellison, J., Duke, N. C., & Field, C. (2008). Threats to Mangroves from Climate Change and Adaptation Options. Aquatic Botany, 89(2), 237250.

Hastuti, E. D., Anggoro, S., & Pribadi, R. (2012). The Effects of Environmental Factors on the Dynamic Growth Pattern of Mangrove. Avicennia marina. Journal of Coastal Develpment, 16(1), 5761.

Hastuti, E. D., Anggoro, S., & Pribadi, R. (2016). Dynamic Linkages of Mangrove Rhizophora mucronata and its Environment Parameters in Semarang and Demak Coastal Area. International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences, 11(1), 279293.

Hastuti, E. D., & Budihastuti, R. (2016a). Analysis on the Absolute Growth Rate of Rhizophora mucronata Seedling in Silvicultural Pond Canals by the Influence of Initial Condition and Changes of Environment Quality. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(1), 5663.

Hastuti, E. D., & Budihastuti, R. (2016b). Potential of Mangrove Seedlings for Utilization in the Maintenance of Environmental Quality within Silvofishery Ponds. Biotropia, 23(1), 5863.

Holstein, J. M., & Wirtz, K. W. (2010). Organic Matter Accumulation and Degradation in Subsurface Coastal Sediments: A Model-Based Comparison of Rapid Sedimentation and Aquifer Transport. Biogeosciences, 7(11), 37413753.

Imo, T., Latu, F., Elisaia-Vaai, A., Arakaki, T., & Sheikh, M. A. (2012). Monitoring the Impacts of Red Soil Runoff along the Matafaa Mangrove Conservation Area in Samoa. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, 3(5), 446449.

Jayatissa, L. P., Wickramasinghe, W. A. A. D. L., Dahdouh-Guebas, F., & Huxham, M. (2008). Interspecific Variations in Responses of Mangrove Seedlings to Two Contrasting Salinities. International Review of Hydrobiology, 93(6), 700710.

Kanai, H., Tajima, M., & Sakai, A. (2014). Effects of Salinity on the Growth and Survival of the Seedlings of Mangrove, Rhizophora stylosa. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 3(7), 879893.

Kang, H. K. (2012). Effects of Suspended Sediments on Reproductive Responses of Paracalanus sp. (Copepoda: Calanoida) in the Laboratory. Journal of Plankton Research, 34(7), 626635.

Knight, J. M., Grif, L., Dale, P. E. R., & Sheaves, M. (2013). Short-Term Dissolved Oxygen Patterns in Sub-Tropical Mangroves. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 131, 290296.

Krauss, K. W., Doyle, T. W., Doyle, T. J., Swarzenski, C. M., From, A. S., Day, R. H., & Conner, W. H. (2009). Water Level Observations in Mangrove Swamps During Two Hurricanes in Florida. Wetlands, 29(1), 142149.

Krauss, K. W., Doyle, T. W., Twilley, R. R., Rivera-Monroy, V. H., & Sullivan, J. K. (2006). Evaluating the Relative Contributions of Hydroperiod and Soil Fertility on Growth of South Florida Mangroves. Hydrobiologia, 569(1), 311324.

Krauss, K. W., Mckee, K. L., Lovelock, C. E., Cahoon, D. R., Saintilan, N., Reef, R., & Chen, L. (2014). How Mangrove Forests Adjust to Rising Sea Level. New Phytologist, 202(1), 1934.

Kristensen, E., Bouillon, S., Dittmar, T., & Marchand, C. (2008). Organic Carbon Dynamics in Mangrove Ecosystems: A Review. Aquatic Botany, 89(2), 201219.

Lloyd, J., & Farquhar, G. D. (2008). Effects of Rising Temperatures and [CO2] on the Physiology of Tropical Forest Trees. Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society B, 363(1498), 1811-1817.

Mackenzie, R. A., Foulk, P. B., Klump, J. V., Weckerly, K., Purbospito, J., Murdiyarso, D., Nam, V. N. (2016). Sedimentation and Belowground Carbon Accumulation Rates in Mangrove Forests that Differ in Diversity and Land Use: A Tale of Two Mangroves. Wetlands Ecology and Management, 24(2), 245261.

Nagelkerken, I., Blaber, S. J. M., Bouillon, S., Green, P., Haywood, M., Kirton, L. G., Somerfield, P. J. (2008). The Habitat Function of Mangroves for Terrestrial and Marine Fauna: A Review. Aquatic Botany, 89(2), 155185.

Nazim, K., Ahmed, M., Shaukat, S. S., Khan, M. U., & Ali, Q. M. (2013). Age and Growth Rate Estimation of Grey Mangrove Avicennia marina (Forsk.) vierh From Pakistan. Pakistan Journal, 45(2), 535542.

Orchard, S. E., Stringer, L. C., & Quinn, C. H. (2015). Mangrove System Dynamics in Southeast Asia: Linking Livelihoods and Ecosystem Services in Vietnam. Regional Environmental Change, 16(3), 865-879.

Osman, H. E., & Abohassan, A. A. (2010). Effect of NPK Fertilization on Growth and Dry Matter Accumulation in Mangrove [Avicennia marina (Forssk) vierh] Grown in Western Saudi Arabia. Journal of King Abdulaziz: The Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, 21(2), 5770.

Oxmann, J. F., Pham, Q. H., Schwendenmann, L., Stellman, J. M., & Lara, R. J. (2010). Mangrove Reforestation in Vietnam: the Effect of Sediment Physicochemical Properties on Nutrient Cycling. Plant and soil, 326(1-2), 225241.

Quisthoudt, K., Schmitz, N., Randin, C. F., Dahdouh-Guebas, F., Robert, E. M. R., & Koedam, N. (2012). Temperature Variation Among Mangrove Latitudinal Range Limits Worldwide. Trees, 26(6), 19191931.

Rahaman, S. M. B., Sarder, L., Rahaman, M. S., Ghosh, A. K., Biswas, S. K., Siraj, S. M. S., Islam, S. S. (2013). Nutrient Dynamics in the Sundarbans Mangrove Estuarine System of Bangladesh Under Different Weather and Tidal Cycles. Ecological Processes, 2(1), 113.

Rivera-Monroy, V. H., Mutsert,, Twilley, R. R., Castaeda-Moya, E., Romigh, M. M., & Davis III, S. E. (2007). Patterns of Nutrient Exchange in A Riverine Mangrove Forest in the Shark River Estuary, Florida, USA. Hidrobiologica, 17(2), 169-178.

Sanders, C. J., Eyre, B. D., Santos, I. R., Machado, W., Luiz-silva, W., Smoak, J. M., Silva-filho, E. (2014). Elevated Rates of Organic Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Accumulation in A Highly Impacted Mangrove Wetland. Geophysical Research Letters, 41(7), 24752480.

Shakun, J. D., Clark, P. U., He, F., Marcott, S. A., Mix, A.C., Liu, Z., Bard, E. (2012). Global Warming Preceded by Increasing Carbon Dioxide Concentrations During the Last Deglaciation. Nature, 484(7392), 49-54.

Shukla, J. B., Misra, A. K., & Chandra, P. (2008). Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of the Depletion of Dissolved Oxygen in Eutrophied Water Bodies Affected by Organic Pollutants. Nonlinear Analysis: Real World APplications, 9(5), 1851-1865.

Sohel, M. S. I., & Ullah, M. H. (2012). Ecohydrology: A Framework for Overcoming the Environmental Impacts of Shrimp Aquaculture on the Coastal Zone of Bangladesh. Ocean and Coastal Management, 63, 6778.

Surez, N., & Medina, E. (2008). Salinity Effects on Leaf Ion Composition and Salt Secretion Rate in Avicennia germinans (L.) L. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 20(2), 131140.

Tanaka, K., & Kodama, M. (2007). Effects of Resuspended Sediments on the Environmental Changes in the Inner Part of Ariake Bay, Japan. Bulletin of Fisheries Research Agency, 19, 915.

Vovides, A. G., Lpez-portillo, J., & Bashan, Y. (2011). N2-Fixation Along A Gradient of Long-Term Disturbance in Tropical Mangroves Bordering the Gulf of Mexico. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 47(5), 567-576.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.