Okra Polysaccharides Improves Spleen Weight and B-Lymphocytes Proliferation in Mice Infected by Staphylococcus aureus

Sri Puji Astuti Wahyuningsih, Manikya Pramudya, Intan Permata Putri, Nadyatul Ilma Indah Savira, Dwi Winarni, Listijani Suhargo, Win Darmanto


Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is reported to have various biological functions such as antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammation. However, only few studies have been reported immunomodulatory activities of okra to prevent disease caused by bacteria infection. In this study, the immunomodulatory activities of polysaccharides from okra pods were investigated further through the spleen weight and B-lymphocytes proliferation in mice infected by Staphylococcus aureus. Okra polysaccharides were obtained by water extraction and ethanol precipitation. Okra polysaccharides with doses of 25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg BW were orally administrated to mice with or without Staphylococcus aureus infection. Spleen weight was evaluated in both treatment group and control group. B-lymphocytes proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay using LPS induction. Results showed that okra polysaccharide at the doses of 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg increased spleen weight (p < 0.05) significantly. While at the dose of 75 and 100 mg/kg, it increased the B-lymphocytes proliferation (p < 0.05) significantly. There is positive correlation between the spleen weight and B-lymphocytes proliferation by 73.3%. These result reveal that okra polysaccharide could improve the immune response and be utilized as a novel candidate of neutraceutical.


B-lymphocytes proliferation; Immunomodulatory activity; Okra polysaccharides; Spleen weight

Full Text:



Abbas, A. K., Litchmann, A. H. & Pober J. S. (2010). Cellular and molecular immunology. W. B. Saunders Company. Philadelphia.

Arapitsas, P. (2008). Identification and quantification of polyphenolic compounds from okra seeds and skins. Food Chemistry, 110(4), 1041-1045.

Battino, M., Bullon, P., Wilson, M., & Hewman, H. (1999). Oxidative injury and inflammatory periodontal disease: the challenge of antioxidants to free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine, 10(4), 458-476.

Bhowmik, D., Gopinath, H., Kumar, B. P., Duravei, S., & Kumar, K. P. S. (2012). Nutraceutical-a bright scope and opportunity of Indian healthcare market. The Pharma Innovation, 1(11), 29-41.

Chen, H., Jiao, H., Cheng, Y., Xu, K., Jia, X., Shi, Q. Guo,S., Wang, M., Du, L. & Wang, F. (2016). In vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activity of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Polysaccharides. Journal of Medical Food, 19(3), 253-265.

Cho, C. W., Han, C. J., Rhee, Y. K., Lee, Y. C., Shin, K. S., Shin, J. S., Lee, K. T. & Hong, H. D. (2015). Cheonggukjang polysaccharides enhance immune activities and prevent cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 72, 519-525.

OGorman, M. R. G. & Donnenberg, A. D. (2008). Handbook of human immunology second edition. CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group. New York.

DElios, M. M., Benagiano, M., Bella, C. D. & Amedei, A. (2011). T-cell response to bacterial agent. Journal of Infected Development Countries, 5(9), 640-645.

Detrick, B., Nagineni, C. N., & Hook, J. (2008). Cytokines: regulators of immune responses and key therapeutic targets. Handbook of Human Immunology. CRC Press. New York.

Diekema, D. J., Pfaller, M. A., Schmitz, F. J., Smayevsky, J., Bell, J., Jones, R. N., & Beach, M. (2001). Survey of infection due to Staphylococcus species: frequency of occurance and antimicrobial suspectibility of isolates collected in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, and the Western Pacific region for the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997-1999. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 15(32), S114-S132.

Ferreira, S. S., Passos, C. P., Madureira, P., Vilanova, M. & Coimbra, M. (2015). A structure function relationships of immunostimulatory polysaccharides: a review. Carbohydrates Polymers, 132, 378-396.

Jiang, M. H., Zhu, L. & Jiang, J. G. (2010). Immunoregulatory actions of polysaccharides from Chinese herbal medicine. Expert Opinion Theriology Targets, 14(12), 1367-1402.

Khatun, H., Rahman, A., Biswas, M. & Ul Islam, A. (2011). Water soluble fraction of Abelmoschus esculentus L interacts with glucose and metformin hydrochloride and alters their absorbtion kinetics after co-administration in rats. ISRN Pharmaceutics, 2011, 1-5.

Lengsfeld, C., Titgemeyer, F., Faller, G. & Hensel A. (2004). Glycosylated compounds from okra inhibit adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to human gastric mucosa. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(6), 1495-1503.

Leung, M. Y. K., Liu, C., Koon, J. C. M. & Fung, K. P. (2006). Polysaccharide biological response modifiers. Immunology Letters, 105(2), 101-114.

Lim, T. K. (2012). Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants Volume 3. Springer Science Business Media B.V. New York.

Lin, Y. C. & Peterson, M. L. (2010). New insight into the prevention of staphylococcal infections and toxic shock syndrome. Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology, 3(6), 753-767.

Moyin-Jesu, E. I. (2007). Use of plant residues for improving soil fertility, pod nutrients, root growth, and pod weight of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). Bioresource technology, 98(11), 2057-2064.

Murphy, K. & Weaver, C. (2017). Janeways Immunology 9th Edition. Garland Science. Taylor & Francis Group. New York.

Nadira, S., Hatidjah, B., & Nuraeni. (2009). Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tanaman Okra (Abelmoschus esculantus) pada Perlakuan Pupuk Dekaform dan Defoliasi. Jurnal Agrisains, 10(1), 10-15.

Naveed, A., Khan, A. A. & Khan, I. A. (2009). Generation mean analysis of water stress tolerance in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L). Pakistan Journal of Botany, 41(1), 195-205.

Ramesh, H. P., Yamaki, K., Tsushida, T. (2002). Effect of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) galactomannan fractions on phagocytosis in rat macrophages and on proliferation and IgM secretion in HB4C5 cells. Carbohydrate Polymers, 50(1), 79-83.

Schepetkin, I. A. & Quinn, M. T. (2006). Botanical polysaccharides: Macrophage immunomodulation and therapeutic potential. International Immunopharmacology, 6(3), 317-333.

Schito, G. C. (2006). The importance of the development of antibiotic resistence in Staphylococcus aureus. Clinical Microbial Infection, 12(1), 3-8.

Sheu, S. C. & Lai, M. H. (2012). Composition analysis and immune-modulatory effect of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) extract. Food Chemistry, 134(4), 1906-1911.

Siddiqui, M. A. & Ali, A. H. A. (2015). Assessment of normal spleen size. International Journal Pharmacy Biology Science, 6, 46-57.

Wahyuningsih, S. P. A., Savira, N. I. I. & Darmanto, W. (2016). Effect on polysaccharide krestin from Coriolus versicolor extract on phagocytic activity and capacity of Mus musculu sexposed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, (8)3, 308-313.

Wang, N., Yang, J., Lu, J., Qiao, Q., Wu, T., Du, X., Bao, G. & He, X. (2014). A polysaccharides from Salvia miltiorrhiza bungee improves immune function in gastric cancer rats. Carbohydrate Polymers, 111, 47-55.

World Health Organization. (2012). The burden of health-care-associated infection worldwide. Retrieved from www.who.int.

Zha, X. Q., Zhao, H. W., Bansal, V., Pan, L. H., Wang, Z. M. & Luo, J. P. (2014). Immunoregulatory activities of Dendrobium huoshananse polysaccharides in mouse intestines, spleen and liver. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 64, 377-382.

Zhao, T., Feng, Y., Li, J., Mao, R., Zou, Y., Feng, W., Zheng, D., Wang, W., Chen, Y., Yang, L. & Wu, X. (2014). Scisandra polysaccharides evokes immunomodulatory activity through TLR 4-mediated activation of macrophages. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 65, 33-40.

Zheng, W., Zhao, T., Feng, W., Wang, W., Zou, Y., Zheng, D., Takase, M., Li, Q, Wu, H, Yang, L. & Wu X. (2014). Purification, characterization and immunomodulating activity of a polysaccharide from flowers of Abelmoschus esculentus. Carbohydrate Polymers, 106, 335-342.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15294/biosaintifika.v9i3.11284


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.