Ascaris suum Cuticle Ultrastructure Due to the In Vitro Application of Ethanol Extract to Fruits Musa x paradisiaca L. ‘Pisang Ambon’

Dwi Haryatmi, Okid Parama Astirin, Tetri Widiyani

Abstract


Species of Musa have various activities, one of which is anthelmintic activity. Part of banana plants that can be used as anthelmintic is part of the fruit, because of the phytochemical content possessed. Tannin is able to inhibit the enzyme cholinesterase, damage the membrane of the worm and can precipitate the protein.  The purpose of this research is to know the content of tannin and also total tannin level on ethanol extract of Musa x paradisiaca L. ‘Pisang Ambon’ and in vitro effect of the extract on Ascaris suum cuticle.  Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) showed of ethanol extract of Ambon banana containing tannin with a total test of tannin was 54.98% w/w. In vitro at negative control (NaCl 0.9%) worm death occurred at 289 hours, positive control (pyrantel pamoate 5 mg/ml) at 1 hour, extract concentration 200 mg/ml at hour 27 and concentration 400 mg/ml at 1 hour. Histopathological examination and scanning electron microscope showed a degenerative change in ultrastructures of the worm's cuticle. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that exposure of ethanol extract to Ambon banana give a damaging effect to cuticle ultrastructure in the form of crack/break, perforation and separation of muscular from cuticle and edema on A. suum worm. High tannin content in the raw/green ambon banana, can be developed to eradicate ascariasis including egg stage which until now cannot be done with synthetic drugs due to the thickness and strength of layers of worm eggs consisting of layers of protein and lipids.


Keywords


Anthelmintic; Ascaris suum cuticle; Histopathology; Scanning electron microscope

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ariani, K. J. & Linawati, Y. (2016). Efek Pemberian Jus Buah Pisang Ambon (Musa paradisiaca var. sapientum (L.) Kunt.) terhadap Kadar Glukosa Darah Tikus Jantan Galur Wistar yang Terbebani Glukosa. Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas, 13(1), 1-6.

Askadilla, W. L., Sidharta, B. B. R., & Pranata, F. S. (2015). Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Daun Kana (Canna coccinea) terhadap Pseudomonas aeruginosa dan Staphylococcus aureus dengan Variasi Pengekstrak. Tesis. Yogyakarta: Fakultas Teknobiologi, Universitas Atmajaya Yogyakarta.

Challam, M., Roy, B., & Tandon, V. (2010). Effect of Lysimachia ramosa (Primulaceae) on Helminth Parasites: Motility, Mortality and Scanning Electron Microscopic Observation of Surface Topography. Veterinary Parasitol, 169 (1-2), 214-218.

Challam, M., Roy, B., & Tandon. (2012). In Vitro Anthelmintic Efficacy of Carex baccans (Cyperaceae): Ultrastructural, Histochemical and Biochemical Alterations in the Cestode, Raillietina echinobothrida. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 36(1), 81-86.

Dasgupta S., Roy B., Venkataswamy, M., & Giri B.R. (2013). Effects of Acacia oxyphylla and Securinega virosaon Functional Characteristics of Raillietina echinobothrida (Phylum: Platyhelminthes; Class: Cestoidea), A Poultry Cestode Parasite. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 37(1), 125-130.

Goldstein, J. I., Newbury, D. E., Echlin, P., Joy, D.C., Romig, A. D. JR., Lyman, C. E., ... & Lifshin, E. (1992). Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis : A Text for Biologist, Materials Scientist, and Cytologists. New York: Plemun Press.

Hegazi A. G., Abd el-Hady F. K., & Shalaby H. A. (2007). An In Vitro Effect of Propolis on Adult Worms of Fasciola gigantica. Veterinary Parasitol, 144(3-4), 279-286.

Iman, F., Waluyo, J., & Asyiah, I. N. (2015). Pengaruh Variasi Konsentrasi Ekstrak Daun Ketepeng Cina (Cassis alata L.) terhadap Mortalitas Cacing Ascaris suum Dewasa secara In Vitro. Pancaran, 4(2), 71-82.

Joseph, J., Sindhu, T. J., Vincent, G., Paul, D., Kumar, B. D, Bhat, A. R & Krishakumar, K. (2014). Review on InVivo and In Vitro Studies on The Pharmacological Activities of Musa Spesies. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(2), 1133-1142.

Magdeleine, C. M., Udino, L., Philibert, L., Bocage, B., & Archimede, H. (2010). Invitro Effects of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Leaf Extracts on Four Development Stages of Haemonchus contortus. Veterinary Parasitology, 173(1-2), 85–92.

Malangngi, L.P., Sangi, M. S., & Paendong, J. J. E. (2012). Penentuan Kandungan Tanin dan Uji Aktivitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Biji Buah Alpukat (Persea americana Mill.). Jurnal MIPA UNSRAT ONLINE, 1(1), 5-10.

Malini, D. M., Madihah, J. K., Fitri K., & Johan I. (2017). Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants in Karangwangi, District of Cianjur, West Java. Biosaintifika Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 9 (2), 345-356.

Pandey, K. h., Khadka, P., Thapa, S. K., Baral, P., Pandit, A., & Panta, S. (2013). Analysis of Anthelmintic Activity of Crateva unilocularis Buch.-Ham. Leaf. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2(6), 4443-4448.

Roberts, L. S. & Janovy, J. Jr. (2009). Foundations of Parasitology. McGraw-Hill Companies, New York.

Suwiti, N. K. (2010). Deteksi Histologik Kesembuhan Luka pada Kulit Pasca Pemberian Daun Mengkudu (Morinda Citrofilia Linn.) Buletin Veteriner Udayana, 2(1), 1-9.

Swargiary. A. (2015). Astragalin, The Active Component of Alpinia nigra and its Effect on Tegumental Ultrastructure of Fluke Parasite, Fasciolopsis buski. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 6(4), 395-403.

Swarnakar, G. & Kumawat, A. (2014). In Vitro Anthelmintic Effect of Citrullus colocynthis on Tegument of Amphistome Orthocoelium scoliocoelium (Trematoda: Digenea). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 3(6), 571-582.

Swarnakar, G., Roat, K., Sanger, B., & Kumawat, A. (2014). Anthelminthic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum on Tegument of Gastrothylax crumenifer in Cattle of Udaipur. International Journal of Current Microbiology Applied Sciences, 3(5), 599-606.

Tiwow, D., Bodhi, W., & Kojong, N. S. (2013). Uji Efek Antelmintik Ekstrak Etanol Biji Pinang (Areca catechu) terhadap Cacing Ascaris lumbricoides dan Ascaridia galli secara In Vitro. PHARMACON Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi UNSRAT, 2(02), 76-80.

Toner E., McConvery F., Brennan G.P., Meaney M., & Fairweather I. (2009). A Scanning Electron Microscope Study on The Route of Entry of Triclabendazole into The Liver Fluke Fasciola hepatica. Parasitology, 136(5), 523-535.

Venkatesh, Krishna, V., Kumar, K. G., Pradeepa, K., Kumar, S. R. S., & Vijay, K. (2013). Anthelmintic Activity of Musa paradisiaca (L.) cv. Puttabale. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, 5(2), 67-69.

Williams, A. R., Fryganas, C., Ramsay, A., Harvey, I. M., & Thamsborg, S. M. (2014). Direct Anthelmintic Effects of Condensed Tannins from Diverse Plant Sources Against Ascaris suum. PLOS One, 9(5), 1-16.

Yadav, A. K., Tandon, V., & Rao, H. S. P. (1992). In Vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Fresh Tuber Extract of Flaminga vestita Against Ascaris suum. Fitoterapia, 8(5), 395-398.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.11918

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.