KANDUNGAN BAHAN ORGANIK DAN AKUMULASI MINERAL TANAH PADA BANGUNAN SARANG RAYAP TANAH Macrotermes gilvus Hagen (BLATTODEA: TERMITIDAE)

Niken Subekti

Abstract


Rayap Macrotermes gilvus Hagen mempunyai peranan ekologis rayap tanah M. gilvus sebagai degradator primer di dalam hutan, eksplorasi perananannya sebagai agen biologis dalam perbaikan vegetasi dan perbaikan kualitas tanah. Rayap dapat memodifikasi sifat fisik dan kimia tanah. Penelitian tentang kandungan bahan organik telah dilakukan dengan analisis proksimat (metode Weende), sementara akumulasi mineral tanah menggunakan metode X-Ray berdasarkan Analysis Program Cristallynity. Rayap M. gilvus Hagen merupakan komponen penting dalam memodifikasi beragam mineral dari tanah disekitarnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan nyata antara komposisi mineral tanah dalam sarang rayap M. gilvus Hagen dengan mineral tanah disekitar sarang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kandungan bahan organik dalam bangunan sarang menghasilkan sebesar 98.33% dan padatannya 1.67%. Padatan ini terdiri dari karbohidrat sebesar 3.16%, abu 4.19%, lemak 23.95%, protein sebesar 39.52%, dan sisanya 29.18% berupa mineral-mineral. Bangunan sarang rayap yaitu SiO2 dan Despujolsite yang dibawa dari lingkungan sekitar kedalan bangunan sarang. Unsur-unsur yang lain diperoleh dari sebagian material yang berasal dari saliva, humus dan tanah sekitar sarang.

 


The termite Macrotermes gilvus Hagen plays an ecological role. Subterranean termites M. gilvus is considered as the primary degradator in the forest, and therefore the exploration of its role as the biological agent to recover the vegetation and soil quality might be useful. Termites could modify the physical and chemical nature of soil. M. gilvus Hagen was an important component in modifying various minerals of the surrounding soil.  Research on the content of the organic materials had been proximat analysis (Weende methode), and the accumulation of soil mineral structure in the mound with X-Ray Methode (Analysis Program Cristallynity 2006). The result of the research indicated that there was significant difference between the composition of soil minerals in the mound of M. gilvus Hagen and the soil minerals around the mound. Analysis of the organic material in the mound building showed that the water was 98.33% and the solidity level was 1.67%, this solidity consisted of carbohydrate as much as 3.16%, ash as much as 4.19%, fat as much as 23.95%, protein as much as 39.52% and other minerals as much as 29.18%. The mound building in the minerals namely, SiO2 and Despujolsite, seemed to be carried in from the surroundings into the mound building. The other elements were obtained partly from the saliva, the fertile soil and the soil around the mound.


Keywords


Macrotermes gilvus H.; Mound building; Organic material; Soil mineral

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15294/biosaintifika.v4i1.2263

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