REGULASI KORTISOL PADA KONDISI STRES DAN ADDICTION

Lisdiana -

Abstract


Stres adalah suatu kondisi dimanan tuntutan yang harus dipenuhi melebihi kemampuan yang dimilikinya, penyebab stres dinamakan stresor. Stres dapat terjadi akibat ketidakmampuan seseorang dalam merespon suatu stresor, sehingga dapat mengakibatkan gangguan badan atau jiwa. Addiction adalah suatu dorongan yang kuat, seperti dipaksakan untuk mengulangi suatu perbuatan tertentu meskipun tahu akan berakibat merugikan. Stress dan adicction akibat penyalahgunaan narkotika akan direspon oleh Hipotlamus-Pituitary-Adrenalin (HPA-axis), sehingga menye-babkan kadar hormon kortisol akan meningkat. Desain penelitian adalah Quasi-Eksperimental dengan Randomized Control Pretest-Postest Design Dengan subyek penelitian 22 Addict recovery yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi di Balai Kasih Sayang Pamardisiwi BNN Jakata.Variabel yang diukur adalah hormone yang disekresikan oleh HPA-axis, yakni hormon kortisol. Pemeriksaan kadar kortisol dengan menggunakan Radioimmunoassay (RIA). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kadar kortisol pada Addict recovery yang menjalani rehabilitasi sebesar 9,2 – 13,97 µg/dl dan 16,5-16,9 µg/dl pada Addict recovery yang tidak menjalani rehabilitasi. Hal ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa terjadi perubahan hormone yang disekresikan HPA-axis pada kondisi stress dan addiction.

 


Stress is a condition where the demands to be met is beyond the capabilities of a person, and something that causes a stress is called stressor. Stress can occur as a result of the inability of a person in responding a stressor, and the stress can cause physical or mental disorders. Addiction is a strong drive, forced to repeat a particular action even it is known that it will harm the body. Stress and adicction to drug abuse will be responded by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenalin (HPA-axis), causing the levels of the hormone cortisol to rise. The study design was a randomized Quasi-Experimental Control Pretest-posttest design with 22 addict recovery study subjects who meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria in the National Narcotics Agency Jakarta.The variabel to be measured was cortisol secreted by the HPA-axis. The examination of the cortisol levels was using a radioimmunoassay (RIA). The results showed that the cortisol levels in the addict recovery subjects with and without rehabilitation were 9.2 to 13.97 mg / dl and 16.5 to 16.9 mg / dl, respectively. It was concluded that the levels of cortisol, secreted by HPA-axis in conditions of stress and addiction, have lowered.


Keywords


Addiction; Cortisol; Stress

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akil HA & Morano MI. 1995. Stress in Bloom FE and Kupfer DJ. Psychopharmacology. New York: Raven Press. 773-779.

Aswin S. 1990. Aspek Psikobiologik Systema Limbicum, Sub Lab Neurobiologi, Lab Anatomi Embriologi dan Antropologi FK UGM. Yogyakarta: 1-5.

BNN (Badan Narkotika Nasional). 2003. Jakarta: Pedoman Terapi Pasien Keter-gantungan Narkotika dan Zat Adiktif Lainnya. 4 22- 29.

Bear MF, Barry WC, Michael AP. 1996. Neuroscience: Exploring The Brain. Baltimore : Williams & Wilkins. 403 –412.

Cance Mc, Kathryn L, and Jane S. 1994. Stress and Disease in “Pathophysiologyâ€. USA: Mosby 304- 307.

Duman RS, Malberg J and Nakagawa S. 2001. Regulation of Adult Neurogenesis by Psychotropic Drugs and Stresss. j Pharmacology and Experimental Thera-peutics. 299:401-107.

Dunn AJ. 1995. Interctions between The Nervous Syatem ant The Immune System. New York: Psychopharmacology. Raven Press. 721-723.

Fishbein DH, Dax E, Lozavsky DB, Jaffe H. 1992. Neuroendokrin Responses to a Glucose Challence in Substance Users with High and Low Levels of Agression, Impulsivity, and Antisocial Personality. Neurobiology. 25(2):106-114.

Fisher GL and Harrison TC. 1997. Substance Abuse: Information for school counsellors, social workers, therapists and counselors. USA: Allyn & Bacon. 13 – 34.

Fox SI. 1996. Human Physiology. Toronto: Mc Graw-Hill. 284 - 307.

Gerra G, Zaimovic A, Ampollini R, Giusti F, Designore R. Raggi MA, Laviola G, Macchia T, Brambilla F. 2002. Experimentally Induced Aggressive Behavior in Subjects with 3,4–methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (Ecstasy) Use History: Psychobiological Correlates. Centro Studi Farmacotoxsicodipendenze, Ser T, AUSL, Parma Italy.

Glaser JKK. 1999. Stress. Personel Relationships, and Immune Function: Health Implication. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 13: 61-72

Guyton AC. 2000. Texbook of Medical Physiology. 9th ed. Philadelpia : W.B. sanders Co.. 9225-1015.

Haass-Koffler. C.L. and Bartlett S E, 2012. Stress and Addiction: contribution of the corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) system in neuroplasticity. Front Mol Neurosci. 5:91.

Hanson GR. 2002. Stress and Substance Abuse. NIDA Community Drug Alert Bulletin. 1-4

Kauer JA. 2003. Addictive Drugs and Stress Trigger a Common Chance at VTA Synapses. j. Neuron 37 (4): 577-82.

Kosten TR and George TP. 2002. Neurobiology of Opioid Dependence: Implications for Treatment in Science & Practice Perspectives. NIDA l(1): 13-20.

Maramis WF. 1999. HPA Axis Activation and Hippocampal Atrophy in Folia Medica Indonesiana 35(1): 20-22.

Muljohardjono H. 2005. Konsep Psikologis dan Usaha Perubahannya. Surabaya: Lab/SMF Ilmu Kedokteran Jiwa FK UNAIR. 25-26.

NIDA. 2002. The Neurobiological of Drug Addiction. NIDA Publications- Slide Teaching Packets. Page 1-3.

Notosoedirdjo M. 1998. Coping dan Psikopatologi. Surabaya: FK Unair.

PPIKB/CME. 2002. Konsensus FKUI tentang Opiat, Masalah Medis dan Penatalaksanaanya. Jakarta: FKUI. 10 – 33.

Putra ST. 2000. Pengaruh Stres terhadap Sistem Kekebalan Tubuh Manusia dalam Sudut Pandang Psikoneuroimunologi. Semarang: Simposium Regional Stres dan Kualitas Hidup. 1-6.

Setyawan S. 2003. Mekanisme Cooping. Surabaya: Lab Ilmu Faal Fakultas Kedokteran UNAIR. 1-4.

Signh. 1999. Differential Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal- Axis Reactivity to Psychological and Physical Stress. Clin Endo & Metab 84(6): 1944-1949.

Stocker S. 2012. Studies Link Stress and Drug Addiction. NIDA Research Finding 14:1-4.

William A, Carlezon Jr and Nestler J. 2002. Elevated of GluR1 in the Midbrain: a Trigger for Sensitization to Drugs of Abuse?. Trends in Neuroscience 25(12): 610-615.

Zaenullah A. 2005. Efek Puasa Ramadlan terhadap Perubahan Imunitas Pelak-sana Puasa Ramadhan. Studi Berba-sis Paradigma Psikoneuroimunologi. Disertasi. Program Pascasarjana Universitas Airlangga Surabaya.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15294/biosaintifika.v4i1.2264

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License

Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education by Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Semarang is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licensep-ISSN (Print) 2085-191X | e-ISSN (Online) 2338-7610