ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI VIRUS AVIAN INFLUENZA SUBTIPE H5N1 DI PETERNAKAN TRADISIONAL KECAMATAN GUNUNGPATI SEMARANG

Angga Ari Wibowo, R. Susanti, Farikhul Ulum, Nugrahaningsih W.H.

Abstract


Avian Influenza (AI) atau yang lebih dikenal dengan flu burung disebabkan oleh virus influenza yang bermutasi menjadi patogen. Penelitian tentang isolasi dan identifikasi virus AI subtipe H5N1 perlu dilakukan untuk mengetahui keberadaan virus tersebut khususnya di kecamatan Gunungpati. Desain penelitian adalah eks ploratif dengan pengumpulan sampel usap kloaka secara acak di lima kelurahan di kecamatan Gunungpati. Sampel usap kloaka ditumbuhkan pada telur ayam berembrio SPF, kemudian diisolasi RNA-nya dilanjutkan dengan identifikasi subtipe virus AI menggunakan Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RTPCR) dengan primer pendeteksi gen H5 dan N1. Hasil positif apabila visualisasi hasil elektroforesis dari produk PCR menunjukkan pita-pita spesifik panjang 219 bp untuk H5 dan 131 bp untuk gen N1-nya. Limapuluh sampel usap kloaka yang diisolasi dari lima kelurahan di Gunungpati, delapan isolat positif VAI dan enam diantaranya positif H5N1 dengan angka prevalensi 12%. Isolat positif berasal dari 2 spesies itik (16,67%), 2 dari entok (11,76%) dan 2 dari angsa (18,18%). Dari lima kelurahan yang diambil sampelnya, tiga kelurahan ditemukan positif virus H5N1 masing-masing kelurahan Sekaran (6,67%), Kalisegoro (16,67%) dan Pakintelan (15,78%). Unggas-unggas air di peternakan unggas tradisional berpotensi sebagai penularan virus AI, khususnya subtipe H5N1.

Avian Influenza (AI) or better known as bird flu is caused by influenza viruses that mutate into a pathogen. Research on the isolation and the identification of H5N1 subtype needed to be carried out to determine the presence of the virus, particularly in the subdistrict of Gunungpati. The study design was explorative by collecting cloacal swab samples randomly from five villages in Gunungpati. The cloacal swab samples were cultured in embryonated SPF chicken eggs, then the RNA was isolated and followed by the identification of AI virus subtype using Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) with H5 and N1 gene detecting primers. A positive result is obtained if the visualization of the electrophoresis of PCR products showed bands with specific length of 219 bp for H5 gene and 131 bp for N1 gene. Fifty cloacal swab samples were isolated from five villages in Gunungpati, and eight of them were positive isolates and six of them were H5N1 positive with the prevalence rate of 12%. The positive isolates were derived from two species of duck (16,67%), 2 from wild duck (11,76%) and 2 from geese (18,18%). Of the five sampled villages, three villages were found to be H5N1 positive, i.e. Sekaran village (6,67%), Kalisegoro village (16,67%) and Pakintelan village (15,78%). Water birds in traditional poultry farming were considered potential as the transmitters of AI virus, particularly of H5N1 subtype.


Keywords


Avian influenza; RT-PCR; Traditional farm; Virus

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15294/biosaintifika.v4i2.2270

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