Antibacterial Activity of Various Extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria

Muhammad Evy Prastiyanto, Fandhi Adi Wardoyo, Wildiani Wilson, Sri Darmawati


The multi-drug resistance (MDR) bacteria is a global health problem that causes high mortality every year. Therefore, novel antibacterial agents are needed from natural biological sources. This research aimed to investigate the antibacterial activities of various crude extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi against MDR bacteria. The antibacterial activity was calculated based on the use agar well diffusion assay and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) using Mueller–Hinton broth in a microdilution method. Bacteria from wells were subcultured using inoculating loop onto a 5% sheep BAP. The best antibacterial activity, calculated as the most widely inhibitory zone and the smallest MBC values. The ethanolic extract showed antibacterial activity against the all MDR bacterial test in the agar well diffusion assay (10-14.5 mm inhibition diameter). The MBC of water extract against ESβL + CR Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed the best antibacterial activity (12.5 mg/mL). The fruit of bilimbi was shown to be potentially developed as antibacterial agents, especially for MDR strains. Further in vivo research and discovery of action mode are needed to shed light on their antibacterial effects. This study can provide new information about the benefits of bilimbi as a source of natural antibacterial againts MDR-bacteria


Averrhoa bilimbi; Antibacterial activity; Minimum Bactericidal Concentration; Resistance bacteria; Secondary metabolites

Full Text:



Abuga, I., Fariza, S., Abdul, R., Leong, K., Syaiful, M., Abdull, B. (2020). European Journal of Integrative Medicine In vitro antibacterial effect of the leaf extract of Murraya koenigii on cell membrane destruction against pathogenic bacteria and phenolic compounds identification. Eur. J. Integr. Med. 33, 101010.

Ahmad, W.N.A.W., Mahmoda, N.H., Ali, A.M., (2019). A Review of Medicinal Plants and Daily Foods used in Southeast Asia Possessing Antidiabetic Activity. J. Agrobiotech 10(1), 17–35.

Akhtar, N. (2015). Phytochemical analysis and comprehensive evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of 61 medicinal plant species. Arab. J. Chem.

Al-dhabi, N.A., Esmail, G.A., Ghilan, A.M., Arasu, M.V., Duraipandiyan, V., Ponmurugan, K. (2020). Chemical constituents of Streptomyces sp . strain Al-Dhabi-97 isolated from the marine region of Saudi Arabia with antibacterial and anticancer properties. J. Infect. Public Health 13, 235–243.

Ali, R., Hossain, M., Runa, J.F. (2014). Evaluation of thrombolytic potential of three medicinal plants available in Bangladesh , as a potent source of thrombolytic compounds. Avicenna J. Phytomedicine, 4(6), 430–436.

Alo, M.., Anyim, C., Elom, M., Uchenna, D.S. (2012). Antibacterial activity of water, ethanol and methanol extracts of Ocimum gratissimum , Vernonia amygdalina and Aframomum melegueta. Adv. Appl. Sci. Res. 3(2), 844–848.

Andleeb, S., Alsalme, A., Al-zaqri, N., Warad, I., Alkahtani, J., (2020). In-vitro antibacterial and antifungal properties of the organic solvent extract of Argemone mexicana L . J. King Saud Univ. - Sci. 1–6.

Aumeeruddy-elalfi, Z., Gurib-fakim, A., Mahomoodally, F. (2015). Antimicrobial , antibiotic potentiating activity and phytochemical profile of essential oils from exotic and endemic medicinal plants of Mauritius. Ind. Crop. Prod. 71, 197–204.

Ballani, K., Babby, J. (2016). Antimicrobial Resistance : Highlights of New Antibiotics for Organisms. J. Nurse Pract. 12, 354–355.

Broniatowski, M., Mastalerz, P. (2015). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Studies of the interactions of ursane-type bioactive terpenes with the model of Escherichia coli inner membrane — Langmuir monolayer approach 1848, 469–476.

CLSI, (2018). M07: Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically, 11th Edition.

Dnyaneshwar, M., Shekhar, B., Shaijesh, S., Juvekar, R. (2010). Hepatoprotective effect of Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. agains carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats. Pharmacologyonline 3, 1–6.

Hasanuzzaman, M., Ali, M.R., Hossain, M., Kuri, S., Islam, M.S. (2013). Evaluation of total phenolic content , free radical scavenging activity and phytochemical screening of different extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi (fruits). Int. Curr. Pharm. J. 2(4), 92–96.

Janakat, S., Al-Fakhir, S., Sallal, A. (2005). Evaluation of antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of the truffle Terfezia claveryi against Pseudomonas. Saudi Med J, 26, 952–5.

Khalid, M., Bilal, M., Dan-feng, H. (2019). Role of flavonoids in plant interactions with the environment and against human pathogens - A review. J. Integr. Agric. 18(1), 211–230.

Khavitha, K.., Satish, S. (2014). Antibacterial activity of seed extract of Callistemon lanceolatus DC on urophatogenic bacteria. J. acute Med. 4, 6–12.

Kumar, S.R., Loveleena, D., Godwin, S. (2013). Medicinal Property of Murraya Koenigii - A Review. Int. Res. J. Biol. Sci. 2(9), 80–83.

Lestari, S.D., Sadiq, A.L.O., Safitri, W.A., Dewi, S.S., Prastiyanto, M.E. (2019). The antibacterial activities of bacteriocin Pediococcus acidilactici of breast milk isolate to against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 1375, 012021.

Mekes, A. El, Zahlanea, K., Said, L.A., Ouafi, A.T., Barakate, M. (2019). The clinical and epidemiological risk factors of infections due to multi-drug resistant bacteria in an adult intensive care unit of University Hospital Center in Marrakesh-Morocco. J. Infect. Public Health, 13(4), 637-643

Mohamad, S., Zin, N.M., Wahab, H.A., Ibrahim, P., Sulaiman, S.F., Zahariluddin, A.S.M., Noor, S.S.M., 2011. Antituberculosis potential of some ethnobotanically selected Malaysian plants. J. Ethnopharmacol. 133, 1021–1026.

Ngameni, B., Fotso, G., Kamga, J., Ambassa, P., Abdo, T., Fankam, A., Voukeng, I., Ngadjui, B., Abegaz BM, K. V. (2013). 9-Flavonoids and related compounds from the medicinal plants of Africa. Chem. Pharmacol. 301–350.

Parvez, M.A.K., Saha, K., Rahman, J., Munmun, R.A., Rahman, M.A., Dey, S.K., Rahman, M.S., Islam, S., Hossain, M., Shariare. (2019). Heliyon Antibacterial activities of green tea crude extracts and synergistic effects of epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) with gentamicin against MDR pathogens. Heliyon 5, e02126.

Patil, A.G., Koli, S.P., Patil, D.A. (2013). Pharmcognostical standardization and HPTLC fingerprint of Averrhoa bilimbi (L.) fruits. J. Pharm. Res. 6, 145–150.

Prastiyanto, M., Darmawati, S., Setyaningtyas, A., Trisnawati, L., Syafira, A. (2016). Antimicrobial Activity and Identification The Compounds of Methanol Extract from The Pleurotus Ostreatus Fruiting Body. El-Hayah, 6(1), 29–34.

Ryandini, D., Pramono, H., Sukanto. (2018). Antibacterial Activity of Streptomyces SAE4034 Isolated from Segara Anakan Mangrove Rhizosphere against Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria. Biosaintifika, 10(1), 117–124.

Seebaluck-sandoram, R., Lall, N., Fibrich, B., Blom, A., Staden, V., Saleem, H., Fawzi, M., 2019. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology Antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic evaluation of two underutilised food plants: Averrhoa bilimbi L. (Oxalidaceae) and Phyllanthus acidus L . Skeels (Phyllanthaceae). Biocatal. Agric. Biotechnol. 18, 100998.

Shahat, A.A., Marzouk, M.S. (2013). 13 Tannins and Related Compounds from Medicinal Plants of Africa, Medicinal Plant Research in Africa. Elsevier Inc.

Tchinda, C.F., Voukeng, I.K., Veronique, P., Kuete, V. (2017). Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of Albizia adianthifolia, Alchornea laxiflora, Laportea ovalifolia and three other Cameroonian plants against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Saudi J. Biol. Sci. 24, 950–955.

Tillah, M., Batubara, I., Sari, R.K. (2017). Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Resins and Essential Oil. Biosaintifika 9(1), 134–139.

Valle-Jr, D.L., Andrade, J.I., Puzon, J.J.M., Cabrera, E.C., Rivera, W.L. (2015). Antibacterial activities of ethanol extracts of Philippine medicinal plants against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 5, 532–540.

Wahyuni, R.A., Putri, I.Y., Jayadi, E.L., Prastiyanto, M.E. (2019). Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Buah Parijoto (Medinilla speciosa) terhadap bakteri Extended Spectrum Betalactamase (ESBL) Escherichia coli dan Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). J. Media Anal. Kesehat. 10, 106–118.

Word Health Organization, 2018. Resistance in bacteria Antibiotic [WWW Document]. URL (accessed 4.9.18).



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.