Morphological Variation of Blue Panchax (Aplocheilus panchax) Lives in Different Habitat Assessed Using Truss Morphometric

Diah Mustikasari(1), Suhestri Suryaningsih(2), Agus Nuryanto(3),

(1) Faculty of Biology, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Indonesia
(2) Faculty of Biology, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Indonesia
(3) Faculty of Biology, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Indonesia


Blue panchax (Aplocheilus panchax Hamilton, 1822) lives in broad ranges of habitat from open waters to closed waters, including at ex-tin mining pits in Bangka Island, Indonesia. Variable habitats might cause morphological variations due to different ecological factors. This study aimed to assess the morphological variation of blue panchax collected from different habitats using truss morphometric characters. Fish samples (70 individuals) were collected from abandoned ex-tin mining pits of different ages and a river in Bangka Island. Twenty-nine truss characters were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc with Dunn’s test . The results showed that almost all of the body parts of blue panchax found in ex-tin mining pits and rivers were significantly different (p-value < 0.05), except some truss characters of caudal peduncle. The post hoc of Dunn’s test showed a positive correlation between habitats and truss characters (adj. sig < 0.05). Some truss characters of killifish were different between ex-tin mining pits with different ages chronosequence, and some other characters were different between pits and river.  This study provides the first data about the morphological variation of blue panchax in ex-tin mining pits of different ages. The data is valuable as a scientific basis of further utilization of ex-tin mining pits in the areas.


Aplocheilus panchax; morphometry; pits; river

Full Text:



Abbink, W., Garcia, A. B., Roques, J. A., Par-tridge, G. J., Kloet, K., & Schneider, O. (2012). The effect of temperature and pH on the growth and physiological response of juvenile yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi in recirculat-ing aquaculture systems. Aquaculture, 330, 130-135.

Afshan, S., Ali, S., Ameen, U. S., Farid, M., Bharwana, S. A., Hannan, F., & Ahmad, R. (2014). Effect of different heavy metal pollu-tion on fish. Research Journal of Chemical and Environmental Sciences, 2(1), 74-79.

Ariyanto, D., Listiyowati, N., & Imron, I. (2011). Analisis truss morfometrik beberapa varietas ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus). Jurnal Riset Akuakultur, 6(2), 187-196.

Baillie, S. M., Muir, A. M., Hansen, M. J., Krue-ger, C. C., & Bentzen, P. (2016). Genetic and phenotypic variation along an ecological gradi-ent in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 16(1), 1-16.

Beck, S. V., Carvalho, G. R., Barlow, A., Ruber, L., Tan, H. H., Nugroho, E., Wowor, D., Nor, S. A. M., Herder, F., Muchlisin, Z. A., & De Bruyn, M. (2017). Plio-Pleistocene phylogeog-raphy of the Southeast Asian blue panchax kil-lifish, Aplocheilus panchax. PLoS ONE, 12(7), e0179557.

Costa, W. J. E. M. (2013). Historical biogeography of aplocheiloid killifishes (Teleostei: Cyprino-dontiformes). Vertebrate Zoology, 63(2), 139-154.

Costa, W. J. E. M. (2016). Comparative morphol-ogy and classification of South American cyn-opoeciline killifishes (Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheilidae), with notes on family-group names used for aplocheiloids. Vertebrate Zool-ogy, 66(2), 125-140.

Dekar, M., Sarong, M. A., Batubara, A. S., & Muchlisin, Z. A. (2018). Ichthyofauna of Aceh River, Aceh Province, Indonesia. In IOP Con-ference Series: Earth and Environmental Sci-ence, 216(1), 012024. IOP Publishing.

Endo, C., & Watanabe, K. (2020). Morphological variation associated with trophic niche expan-sion within a lake population of a benthic fish. PloS ONE, 15(4), e0232114.

Furness, A. I. (2015). The evolution of an annual life cycle in killifish: adaptation to ephemeral aquatic environments through embryonic dia-pause. Biological Reviews, 91(3), 796-812.

Gebrekiros, S. T. (2016). Factors affecting stream fish community composition and habitat suita-bility. Journal of Aquaculture and Marine Bi-ology, 4(2), 00076.

Hasler, C. T., Jeffrey, J. D., Schneider, E. V., Hannan, K. D., Tix, J. A., & Suski, C. D. (2018). Biological consequences of weak acidi-fication caused by elevated carbon dioxide in freshwater ecosystems. Hydrobiologia, 806(1), 1-12.

Ihya, S. S., Nuryanto, A., Prabowo, R. E., Baga-wati, D., & Kusbiyanto. (2020). Phylogenetic relationships of ornamental Chaethodontidae in the South Coastal of West Java Indonesia. Jurnal Biodjati, 5(1), 82-89.

Irawan, R. R., Sumarwan, U., Suhardjo, B., & Djohar, S. (2014). Strategic model of tin mining industry in Indonesia (case study of Bangka Belitung Province). International Journal of Business and Management Review, 2(3), 48-58.

Karuppaiah, K. P., & Ramesh, U. (2016). Studies on the physicochemical and biological parame-ters of River Vaigai, Madurai Dist, Tamilnadu, India. International Journal of Current Micro-biology and Applied Sciences, 5(1), 788-795.

Kashefi, P., Bani, A., & Ebrahimi, E. (2012). Morphometric and meristic variations between non-reproductive and reproductive kutum fe-males (Rutilus frisii kutum, Kamensky, 1901) in the southwest Caspian Sea. Italian Journal of Zoology, 79(3), 337-343.

Kennedy, C. J., & Picard, C. (2012). Chronic low pH exposure affects the seawater readiness of juvenile Pacific sockeye salmon. Fish Physiol-ogy and Biochemistry, 38(4), 1131-1143.

Kleinhappel, T. K., Burman, O. H., John, E. A., Wilkinson, A., & Pike, T. W. (2019). The im-pact of water pH on association preferences in fish. Ethology, 125(4), 195-202.

Kurniawan, A. (2019). Diversitas metagenom bak-teri di danau pascatambang timah dengan umur berbeda. Disertasi. Fakultas Biologi. Universi-tas Jenderal Soedirman. 103p.

Kurniawan, A. (2017). Chronosequence effect of post tin mining ponds to metals residu and mi-croecosystem change. Omni-Akuatika, 13(1), 60-65.

Kurniawan, A., & Mustikasari, D. (2019). Review: Mekanisme akumulasi logam berat di ekosistem pascatambang timah. Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan, 17(3), 408-415.

Kurniawan, A., Oedjijono, Tamad, & Sulaeman, U. (2019). The pattern of heavy metals distri-bution in time chronosequence of ex-tin mining ponds in Bangka Regency, Indonesia. Indone-sian Journal of Chemistry, 19(1), 254-261.

Kwong, R. W., Kumai, Y., & Perry, S. F. (2014). The physiology of fish at low pH: the zebrafish as a model system. Journal of Experimental Bi-ology, 217(5), 651-662.

Lestari, W., Zayyana, D. A., Setyaningrum, N., & Amelia, T. (2018). The guild composition for modelling fish community in Banjaran River, Purwokerto. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 10(3), 698-705.

Manna, B., Aditya, G., & Banerjee, S. (2011). Habitat heterogeneity and prey selection of Aplocheilus panchax: an indigenous larvi-vorous fish. Journal of Vector-Borne Diseases, 48(3), 144-149.

Mojekwu, T. O., & Anumudu, C. I. (2015). Ad-vanced techniques for morphometric analysis in fish. Journal of Aquaculture Research and Development, 6: 354.

Mota, V. C., Hop, J., Sampaio, L. A., Heinsbroek, L. T., Verdegem, M. C., Eding, E. H., & Ver-reth, J. A. (2018). The effect of low pH on physiology, stress status and growth perfor-mance of turbot (Psetta maxima L.) cultured in recirculating aquaculture systems. Aquaculture Research, 49(10), 3456-3467.

Muchlisin, Z. A. (2013). Morphometric variations of Rasbora group (Pisces: Cyprinidae) in Lake Laut Tawar, Aceh Province, Indonesia, based on truss character analysis. Hayati Journal of Biosciences, 20(3), 138-143.

Mustikasari, D., Nuryanto, A., & Suryaningsih, S. (2020). The presence of blue panchax (Aplocheilus panchax) in the waters, contami-nated by heavy metals, of the abandoned tin mining pits of different age. AACL Bioflux, 13(5), 2538-2550.

Nabila, A., Nuryanto, A., Prabowo, R. E., Bhaga-wati, D., & Kusbiyanto. (2019). Phylogenetic relationships among ornamental achanturid fish from Ujunggenteng and Taman Manalusu, West Java. Biosaintifika, 11(3), 325-331.

Nguyen, N. H., Hamzah, A., & Thoa, N. P. (2017). Effects of genotype by environment in-teraction on genetic gain and genetic parameter estimates in Red Tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). Frontiers in Genetics, 8, 82.

Nuryanto, A., Bhagawati, D., & Abulias, M. N. (2012). Fish diversity at Cileumeuh River in District of Majenang, Cilacap Regency, Central Java. Jurnal Iktiologi Indonesia, 12(2), 147-153.

Nuryanto, A., Bhagawati, D., & Abulias, M. N. (2015). Ichthyofauna in the Cikawung River, Cilacap Regency, Central Java. Jurnal Iktiologi Indonesia, 15(1), 25-37.

Paknejad, S., Heidari, A., & Mousavi-Sabet, H. (2014). Morphological variation of shad fish Alosa brashnicowi (Teleostei, Clupeidae) popu-lations along the southern Caspian Sea coasts, using a truss system. International Journal of Aquatic Biology, 2(6), 330-336.

Pambudi, D. S., Nuaryanto, A., & Parabowo, R. E. (2019). Phylogeny of marine ornamental fish members of Labridae from the South Coast of West Java, Indonesia. Biogenesis, 7(2), 139-147.

Pazhayamadom, D. G., Chakraborty, S. K., Jaiswar, A. K., Sudheesan, D., Sajina, A. M., & Jahaagerdar, S. (2014). Stock structure analysis of ‘Bombay duck’ (Harpadon nehereus Hamil-ton, 1822) along the Indian coast using truss network morphometrics. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 31, 37-44.

Prasad, A. G. D., Venkataramana, G. V., & Thom-as, M. (2009). Fish diversity and its conserva-tion in major wetlands of Mysore. Journal of Environmental Biology, 30(5), 713-718.

Raja, M., Ramkumar, R., Kavitha, M., & Perumal, P. (2015). Distribution pattern, threatened status and conservation measures of fishes with rela-tion to water quality and habitat characteristics of Bhavanisagar Reservoir, Tamil Nadu. Inter-national Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Stud-ies, 2(6), 11-18.

Rajeshkumar, S., & Li, X. (2018). Bioaccumula-tion of heavy metals in fish species from the Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, China. Toxicology Reports, 5, 288-295.

Rajeswari, M. V., Rajasree, S. R. R., & Bal-asubramanian, T. (2017). Effect of light levels on growth, survival and skin colour enhance-ment of marine angelfish, Apolemichthys xan-thurus (Bennett, 1833). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 17(6), 1083-1087.

Rawat, S., Benakapa, S., Kumar, A.S.J., Naik, K. Pandey, G., & Pema, C.W. (2017). Identifica-tion of fish stocks based on truss morphomet-ric: a review. Journal of Fisheries and Life Sci-ences, 2(1), 9-14.

Rychła, A., Benndorf, J., & Buczyński, P. (2011). Impact of pH and conductivity on species rich-ness and community structure of dragonflies (Odonata) in small mining lakes. Fundamental and Applied Limnology/Archiv für Hydrobiolo-gie, 179(1), 41-50.

Sari, T. S., & Zakaria, I. J. (2017). The relationship of body length and ratio pappilla with sex in gobi fish (Sicyopterus macrostetholepis). Bi-osaintifika, 9(2), 265-272.

Sedlacek, O., Baciakova, B., & Kratochvil, K. (2014). Evolution of body colouration in killi-fishes (Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheilidae, Nothobranchiidae, Rivulidae): is male orna-mentation constrained by intersexual genetic correlation? Zoologischer Anzeiger, 253(3), 207-215.

Sen, S., Jahageerdar, S., Jaiswar, A. K., Chakraborty, S. K., Sajina, A. M., & Dash, G. R. (2011). Stock structure analysis of Decap-terus russelli (Ruppell, 1830) from east and west coast of India using truss network analy-sis. Fisheries Research, 112(1), 38-43.

Srineetha, U., Reddy, M. V., & Bhaskar, M. (2013). Effect of environmental acidic pH on oxygen consumption of fish, Cyprinus carpio (L). Journal of Environmental Science, Toxi-cology and Food Technologssy, 8(8), 17-21.

Vasil’eva, E. D., Medvedev, D. A., Chi, T. T. L., Prazdnikov, D. V., Pavlov, D. S., Nga, N. T., & Vasil’ev, V. P. (2013). Species structure of the ichthyofauna of the inland waters of Phu Quoc Island, Gulf of Thailand, Vietnam. Journal of Ichthyology, 53(6), 380-396.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.