Parasitoid Hama Penggerek Batang dan Pucuk Tebu di Cinta Manis, Ogan Ilir Sumatera Selatan

Dewi Meidalima

Abstract


Serangan hama penggerek tebu siap panen sebesar 11,25% di Cinta Manis tahun 2007. Lahan pengamatan 1 ha di bagi menjadi 5 petak secara diagonal, masing-masing seluas 200 m2, populasi tanaman sebanyak 1500 batang. Tujuan penelitian mengetahui keanekaragaman, spesies parasitoid dan potensi parasitasinya. Ditemukan 3 spesies parasitoid telur (Trichogramma chilonis; Telenomus dignoides; Tetrastichus schoenobii) dan 3 spesies parasitoid larva (Rachonathus scirpophagae; Stenobracon nicevillei; Diatraeophaga striatalis). Parasitisasi parasitoid telur penggerek pucuk di lahan dengan dan tanpa tumbuhan liar oleh Telenomus dignoides, Tetrastichus schoenobii, Trichogramma chilonis sebesar 6,96% dan 80,48%; 29,13% dan 15,22%; 0% dan 0,71%. Parasitisasi parasitoid telur penggerek batang di lahan dengan dan tanpa tumbuhan liar oleh Tetrastichus schoenobii sebesar 48,88% dan 36,08%, Telenomus dignoides sebesar 29,35% dan 28,34%. Parasitisasi parasitoid larva penggerek pucuk di lahan dengan dan tanpa tumbuhan liar oleh Rachonothus scirpophagae sebesar 2,66% dan 1,59%, dan Stenobracon nicevillei sebesar 1,81% dan 0,99%. Parasitisasi parasitoid larva penggerek batang (Diatraeophaga striatalis), di lahan dengan dan tanpa tumbuhan liar sebesar 32,23% dan 19,62%. Keanekaragaman spesies parasitoid telur (H=0,627)dan larva penggerek pucuk (H=0,686) tertinggi pada lahan dengan tumbuhan liar. Keanekaragaman spesies parasitoid telur penggerek batang tertinggi pada lahan tanpa tumbuhan liar adalah H=0,686.

During 2007 in Cinta Manis area, the attack of borers on readily harvested sugarcane reached 11.25%. A 1-ha observation field was divided diagonally into 5 plots, each with an area of 200 m2, and populated with 1,500 plants. The aims of this study were to know the diversity of parasitoids species and their parasitic potentials. As many as 3 species of parasitoid eggs (Trichogramma chilonis; Telenomus dignoides; Tetrastichus schoenobii) and 3 species of parasitoid larvae (Rachonathus scirpophagae; Stenobracon nicevillei; Diatraeophaga striatalis) have been found. The parasitization of shoot borer egg parasitoids (Telenomus dignoides, Tetrastichus schoenobii, Trichogramma chilonis) in the field with and without wild plants were 61.96% and 80.48%; 29.13% and 15.22%; 0% and 0.71%, respectively. The parasitization of stem borer egg parasitoids of Tetrastichus schoenobii in the field with and without wild plants were 48.88% and 36.08%, respectively, and of Telenomus dignoides were 29.35% and 28.34%, respectively. The parasitization of shoots borer larval parasitoids of Rachonothus scirpophagae in the field with and without wild plants were 2.66% and 1.59%, respectively, and of Stenobracon nicevillei were 1.81% and 0.99%, respectively. Parasitization of larvae parasitoid stem borer (Diatraeophaga striatalis) in the field with and without the wild plants were 32.23% and 19.62%, respectively. The highest diversity of eggs (H=0.627) and larvae (H=0.686) of shoot borer parasitoid species were in the field with wild plants. The highest diversity of egg stem borer parasitoid species in the field without wild plants was H=0.686.


Keywords


borers; exploration; parasitoid; weed

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alba MC. 1988. Trichogrammatids in Philipppines. Phillip Ent. 7:253-271.

Amirhusin B. 2004. Perakitan Tanaman Transgenik Tahan Hama. Jurnal Litbang Pertanian 23(1):1-7.

Ardjanhar A, Siwi SS, Mahrub E. 2004. Peranan Parasitoid Telur Penggerek Batang Padi pada Lahan yang Diaplikasi Insektisida Kimia di Daerah Indramayu. Prosoding Seminar Nasional Entomologi dalam Perubahan Lingkungan Sosial. Bogor, 5 Oktober 2004. 471-484.

Bayram A, Salerno G, Onofri A, Conti E. 2010. Lethal and Sublethal effects of preimaginal treatments with two pyretroids on the life history of the egg parasitoid Telenomus busseolae. J Biocontrol 55(6):697-703.

Belz E, Kolliker M, Balmer O. 2013. Olfactory Attractiveness of Flowering Plants to the Parasitoid Microplitis mediator: Potential Implications for Biological Control. Jurnal biocontrol 58(2):163-173.

Carmo EL, Bueno AF, Bueno RCOF. 2010. Pesticides Selectivity for the Insect Egg Parasitoid Telenomus remus. J. Biocontrol 55(4):455-464.

Daniati. 2011. Lalat Sturmiopsis Sahabat Petani Tebu.

Donald C, Endersby NN, Ridland P, Porter I, Lawrence J. 2000. Field Guide to Pests, Diseases and Disorders of Vegetable Brassicas. AUSVEG: Department of Natural Resources and Environment.

Hall DG, Nguyen R. 2010. Toxicity of Pesticides to Tamarixia radiate, a Parasitoid of the Asian Citrus Psyllid. J Biocontrol 55:601-611.

Hamid H, Buchori D, Triwidodo H. 2003. Keanekaragaman Parasitoid dan Parasitasinya pada Pertanaman Padi di Kawasan Taman Nasional Gunung Halimun. J. Hayati 10(3):85-90.

Hamijaya MZ, Tamrin M, Asikin S. 2004. Dominasi Spesies Parasitoid Telur Penggerek Batang Padi pada Tipelogi Lahan basah di Kalimantan Selatan. Prosoding Seminar Nasional Entomologi dalam Perubahan Lingkungan Sosial. Bogor, 5 Oktober 2004. 467-474.

Hauseweart MW, Jennings DT, Lawrence RK. 1984. Field Releases of Trichogramma minutum (Hymenoptera : Trichogrammatidae) for Suppression of Epidemic Spruce Budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera : Tortricidae), Eggs Populations in Maine. The Canadian Entomologist 116:1357-1367.

Herlinda S. 2005. Parasitoid dan Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) di Sumatera Selatan. J. Hayati 12:151-156.

Herlinda S, Waluyo, Estuningsih SP, Irsan C. 2008. Perbandingan Keanekaragaman Spesies dan Kelimpahan Arthropoda Predator Penghuni Tanah di Sawah Lebak yang Diaplikasi dan Tanpa Aplikasi Insektisida. J. Entomol, Ind, 5(2):96-107.

Herlinda S, Irsan C. 2011. Pengendalian Hayati Hama Tumbuhan. Universitas Sriwijaya. Palembang. Hal. 108-110.

Hirose Y. 2009. Biological and Ecological Comparison of Trichogramma and Telenomus as Control Agents of Lepidopterous Pests. J. App Entomol 101(5):39-47.

Hochberg ME, Ives AR. 2000. Parasitoid Population Biology. Princeton University Press Princeton and Oxford New Jersey. United Kingdom.

Indonesian Sugar Research Institute (ISRI). 2006. Integrated pest management of stem borers and insect vectors of viral diseases of sugarcane in Indonesia.

Johnson SJ. 1985. Low-level Augmentation of Trichogramma pretiosum and Naturally Occuring Trichogramma spp. Parasitism of Heliothis spp. in Cotton in Louisiana. Environ. Entomol. 14:28-31.

Juklak PHT Cinta Manis. 2010. Pengendalian Hama Penggerek Berdasarkan Masa Tanam. Unit Usaha Cinta Manis, PTP Nusantara VII (Persero).

Kartohardjono A. 2011. Penggunaan Musuh Alami sebagai Komponen Pengendalian Hama Padi berbasis Ekologi. Balai Besar Penelitian Tanaman Padi Sukamandi. J. Pengembangan Inovasi Pertanian 4(1):29-46.

Knutson A. 2007. The Trichogamma Manual. The Texas A&M University System, New York.

Ludwig JA, Reynolds JF. 1988. Statistical Ecology : A Primer on Methodes and Computing. John Wiley and Sons. New York. 338 p.

Magurran AE. 1987. Ecological Diversity and Its Measurement. Princeton University Press. New Jersey. 179 p.

Mahrub E. 2000. Evaluasi Potensi Parasitoid Penggerek Pucuk Tebu, di Kabupaten Bantul. J. Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia 4(1):142-148.

McLaren IW, Rey WJ. 1983. The Rearing, Storage, and Release of Trichogramma ivelae Pang and Chen (Hymenoptera : Trichogrammatidae) for Control of Heliothis puctiger Wallengren (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) on Tomatoes. J. Aust. Ent. Soc. 22:119-124.

Meidalima D. 2013. Pengaruh Tumbuhan Liar Berbunga terhadap Tanaman Tebu dan Keberadaan Parasitoid di Pertanaman Tebu Lahan Kering, Cinta Manis Sumatera Selatan. J. Suboptimal Lands, 2(1):35-42.

Meidalima D, Herlinda S, Pujiastuti Y, Irsan C, Khodijah, Nunilahwati N. 2013. Serangga-serangga Hama Penting dan Serangannya di Tanaman Tebu PTPN VII, Cinta Manis Sumatera Selatan. Jurnal HPT Tropika, Lampung. In press.

P3GI. 2008. Konsep Peningkatan Rendemen untuk Mendukung Program Akselerasi

IndustriGulaNasional.

Pcilindia. 2006. Sugarcane Stalk Borer or Rice Gold-fringed Stem Borer (Chilo auricilius).

Rauf A. 2000. Parasitasi Telur Pengerek Batang Padi Putih, Scirpophaga innotata (Walker) (Lepidoptera : Piralidae) : Saat Terjadi Ledakan di Kerawang pada Awal 1990-an. Bul. Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan 12(1):1-10 (2000). ISSN 0854-3836. Jur. HPT, IPB Bogor.

Rusch A, Suchail S, Valantin-Morison M, Sarthou J, Roger-Esrade J. 2012. Nutritional State of the Pollen Beetle Parasitoid Tersilochus heterocerus Foraging in the Field. J Biocontrol 58(1):223-231.

Stapel JO, Cortesero AM, Lewis WJ. 2000. Disruptive Sublethal Effects of Insecticides on Biological Control: Altered Foraging Ability and Life Span of a Parasitoid after Feeding on Extrafloral Nectar of Cotton Treated with Systemic Insecticides. J. Biological Control 17(3):243-249.

Van Emden H.F. 1991. Plant diversity and natural enemy efficiency in agroecosystems, p.63-80. In M. Mackauer, L.E. Ehler & J. Roland (eds.) Critical issues in Biological Control. Athenaeum Press Ltd. Great Britain.

Widiarta IN, Kusdiaman, Suprihanto. 2006. Keragaman Artropoda pada Padi Sawah dengan Pengelolaan Tanaman Terpadu, JHPTT 6:61-69.

Wilyus. 2009. Survey Eksplorasi Parasitoid Telur Penggerek Batang Padi di Desa Sungai Duren Kecamatan Jambi Luar Kota. Elektronik Jurnal Prosiding Seminar Nasional BKS PTN Wilayah Indonesia Barat. ISBN 978-979-1415-0-15-7

Winkler K, Wackers FL, Termorshuizen AJ, van Lenteren JC. 2010. Assessing Risks and Bene?ts of Foral Supplements in Conservation Biological Control. BioControl 55:719-727.

Wirioatmodjo B. 1977. Biologi Lalat Jatiroto Diatraeophaga striatalis Townsend dan Penerapannya dalam Pengendalian Penggerek Berkilat Chilo auricilius Dudgeon. Thesisi, Bogor: Sekolah Pascasarjana, Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Yaherwandi S, Manuoto D, Buchori P, Hidayat, Prasetyo LB. 2008. Struktur Komunitas Hymenoptera Parasitoid pada Tumbuhan Liar di Sekitar Pertanaman Padi di Daerah Aliran Sungai (DAS) Cianjur, Jawa Barat. Jurnal HPT Tropika. ISSN 1411-7525. Vol. 8, No. 2 : 90-101, September 2008.

Yaherwandi. 2012. Struktur komunitas Hymenoptera parasitoid yang berasosiasi dengan tanaman Brassicaceae dan tumbuhan liar. J. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 22-26




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15294/biosaintifika.v6i1.2928

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.