Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Kerang Pisau (Solen sp.) dan Kerang Simping (Placuna placenta)

Ika Rochmawati, Muslimin Ibrahim, Reni Ambarwati

Abstract


Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak kerang pisau dan kerang simping dalam menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri uji berdasarkan zona jernih yang terbentuk dan menentukan jenis ekstrak kerang yang paling optimal dalam menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri uji. Kerang pisau yang diperoleh dari Pantai Talang Siring Madura dan kerang simping yang diperoleh dari Lamongan diekstrak dengan menggunakan metode ekstraksi bertingkat dengan tiga pelarut,. Pengujian aktivitas antibakteri dilakukan dengan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan delapan perlakuan dan tiga ulangan, yaitu pemberian kontrol negatif (akuades), kontrol positif (kloramfenikol), ekstrak heksana, ekstrak etil asetat, ekstrak metanol kerang pisau serta ekstrak heksana, ekstrak etil asetat, ekstrak metanol kerang simping. Data yang diperoleh berupa diameter zona jernih, dianalisis dengan analisis varian satu arah dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan. Berdasarkan hasil uji diketahui bahwa ekstrak etil asetat dan metanol kerang pisau serta ekstrak heksana, etil asetat, dan metanol kerang simping menunjukkan aktivitas antibakteri dan mampu menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri uji Staphylococcus aureus FNCC 0047 dan Escherichia coli FNCC 0091. Ekstrak etil asetat kerang pisau terbukti menunjukkan aktivitas antibakteri paling baik, yaitu menunjukkan diameter zona jernih paling besar dibanding dengan ekstrak-ekstrak yang lain. Ekstrak etil asetat kerang pisau mampu menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dengan membentuk zona jernih sebesar 32,10 0,17 mm, sedangkan pada bakteri Escherichia coli ekstrak etil asetat kerang pisau mampu menghambat pertumbuhannya dengan zona jernih yang terbentuk sebesar 32,06 1,07 mm.

This research aimed to test the antibacterial activities of the extracts of razor clams and window-pane oyster and determine the extract that can inhibit the growth of tested bacteria optimally based on clear zones formed. Razor clams collected from Talang Siring Beach, Madura and window-pane oyster collected from Lamongan. They were extracted using multilevel extraction method using three organic solvents. Antibacterial activities assay were carried out using completely randomized design with eight treatments. All assays were conducted in triplicate. The treatments were negative control (aquades), positive control (100% of chloramphenicol in aquades), hexane extract, ethyl acetate extract, and methanol extract of each razor clams and window-pane oyster. Diameters of inhibiton zone (clear zone) were analyzed using one way analysis of variance and followed by Duncans test. The results revealed that ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of razor clams as well as hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of window-pane oyster showed antibacterial activities. These mean they can inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus FNCC 0047 dan Escherichia coli FNCC 0091. Ethyl acetate extract of razor clams showed the highest antibacterial activity, the maximum zone of inhibition (32.10 0.17 mm) was observed against Staphylococcus aureus and the maximum zone of inhibition (32.06 1.07 mm) was observed against Escherichia coli.


Keywords


antibacterial activity; extracts of razor clams; extracts of window pane; oyster; clear zone

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15294/biosaintifika.v7i2.3956

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