Stimulation of Deprivation Cycles with Spirulina platensis Feed Supplementation on Osphronemus gouramy Physiological Responses

Sorta Basar Ida Simanjuntak, Eko Setio Wibowo, Indarmawan Indarmawan


Spirulina platensis is a phytoplankton, the cell wall composed of complex sugars so easily digested by fish. The present study was carried out to investigate stimulation cycle of feed deprivation with feed supplemented S. platensis the best to increase growth, hematological and body composition of gurami (Osphronemus gouramy). Groups of 24 fish, each in triplicate, were exposed to four different treatment for a period of 56 days. Sample measurements of growth done every 14 days, hematological and body composition measurements carried out at the end of the experiment. Growth was significantly different between stimulation cycle of feed deprivation and the control (P<0.05). Conclusions result showed that stimulation cycles of feed deprivation could not improve growth and hematological, but could improve body composition. Feed deprivation is done to reduce the cost of production, high production costs due to high feed prices. During research on feed deprivation is done by giving commercial feed, this study is to provide feed supplementation S. platensis. Thus, the results of this study can be useful for science as S. platensis information can be used as a food supplement and and for the people cultivating gurami should be fed daily supplementation of S. platensis.

How to Cite

Simanjuntak, S. B. I., Wibowo, E. S. & Indarmawan, I. (2016). Stimulation of Deprivation Cycles with Spirulina platensis Feed Supplementation on Osphronemus gouramy Physiological Responses. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3), 378-385.


Osphronemus gourami; Spirulina platensis; stimulation cycles deprivation

Full Text:



Abdulrahman, N. M., & Ameen, H. J. H. (2014). Replacement of fishmeal with microalgae spirulina on common carp weight gain, meat and sensitive composition and survival. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 13(2), 93.-98.

Allen, D. (2000). Nutrient comparison of Spirulina with carrot. Denver, Colorado, [1 November 2000].

Bav?evi?, L., Klanj?ek, T., Karamarko, V., Ani?i?, I., & Legovi?, T. (2010). Compensatory growth in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) compensates weight, but not length. Aquaculture, 301(1), 57-63.

Belay, A. (2002). The potential application of Spirulina (Arthrospira) as a nutritional and therapeutic supplement in health management. The J. of the American Nutraceut. Association, 5(2), 27-31.

Bermejo, P., Piero, E., & Villar, . M. (2008). Iron-chelating ability and antioxidant properties of phycocyanin isolated from a protean extract of Spirulinaplatensis. Food Chemistry, 110(2), 436-445.

Blavan, P. S., Devi, V. G., Shanti, R., Radhakrishnan, S., & Poongodi, R. (2010). Basic biochemical constituent and profiles of amino acids in the post larvae of Macrobrachium rosenbergii fed with Spirulina and yeast enriched Artemia. J. Sci. Res., 2(3), 539-549.

Chairlan & Lestari, E. (2011). Pedoman Teknik Dasar Untuk Laboratorium Kesehatan/WHO (Manual of Basic Techniques for a Health Laboratory). Edisi 2. Penerbit Buku Kedokteran, EGC. 386.

Cho, S. H. (2011a). Effect of Dietary Composition with Different Feeding Regime on Compensatory Growth of Juvenile Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 24(8), 1148-1156.

Cho, S. H. (2011b). Effect of Dietary Nutrient composition on compensatory growth of Juvenile Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus Using Different Feeding Regimes. Aquaculture Nutrition, 17(1), 90-97.

Cho, S. H. (2012). Effects of dietary nutrient on the biological index and serum chemistry of juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus achieving compensatory growth. Fisheries and aquatic sciences, 15(1), 69-72.

Dernekbasi, S., Una, H., Karayucel, I. & Aral, O. (2010). Effect of dietary supplementation of different rates of Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) on growth, and feed conversion in guppy (Poecilia reticulate peters, 1860). Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 9(9), 1395-1399.

Demir, B. S. & Tukel, S. S. (2010). Purification and characterization of lipase from Spirulina platensis. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic, 64(3), 123-128.

Dmitriew, C. & Rowe, L. (2007). Effects of early resource limitation and compensatory growth on lifetime fitness in the ladybird beetie (Harmonia axyridis). Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 20(4), 1298-1310.

Effendi, I., Bugri, H. J., & Widanarni. (2006). Effect of Different Rearing Density on Survival Rate and Growth of Giant Gouramy Osphronemus gouramy Lac. Fry at Size of 2 cm in Length. Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia, 5(2), 127-135.

El-Sheekh, M., El-Shourbagy, I., Salaby, S. & Hosny, S. (2014). Effect of feeding Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina) on Growth and Carcas Compositionof Hybrid Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis mossambicus). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 14, 471-478.

Eslamloo, K., Morshedi, V., Azodi, M., Ashouri, G., Ali, M. & Iqbal, F. (2012). Effects of Starvation and Re-feeding on Growth Performance, Feed Utilization and Body Composition on Tinfoil Barb (Barbonymus schwanenfeldii). World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences, 4(5), 489-495.

Gao, Y. & Lee, J. Y. (2012). Compensatory Responses of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus under under Different Feed-Deprivation Regimes. Fisheries and aquatic sciences, 15(4), 305-311.

Henrikson, R. (2000). Spirulina : Health discoveries from the source of life. (1 November 2000)

Ibrahem, M. D., Mohamed, M. F. & Ibrahim, M. A. (2013). The role of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis) in Growth and Immunity of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Its Resistance to Bacterial Infection. Journal of Agricultural Science, 5(6), 109117.

Jana, A., Saroch, J. D. & Borana, K. (2014). Effect of Spirulina as a feed supplement on survival and growth of Pangasius sutchi. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 1(5), 77-79.

Karakatsouli, N. (2012). An overview of the use of fatty acids in the fish farming research during the last decade, with particular emphasis on fish quality. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 43(3), 291-320.

Kim, S. S., Rahimnejad, S., Kim K. W., & Lee, K. J. (2013). Partial Replacement of Fishmeal with Spirulina pacifica in diets for parrot fish (Oplegnathus fasciatus). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 13(2), 197-204.

Kozlenko, R. & Henson, R. H. (2010). The study of Spirulina platensis Effects on the AIDS Virus, Cancer and the Immune System. J. Healthy & Natural, 1(1), 1-4.

Kumari, D. (2011). Potential health benefits of Spirulina platensis. Intern. J. of Advances in Pharmaceutical Sci., 2 (4), 5-6.

Lin, W., Pan, B., Sheng, J., Xu, J., & Hu, Q. (2007). Antioxidant activity of Spirulina platensis extracts by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Food Chemistry, 105(1), 36-41.

Mattila, J., Koskela, J., & Pirhonen, J. (2009). The effect of the length of repeated feed deprivation between single meals on compensatory growth of pikeperch, Sander lucioperca. Aquaculture, 296(1), 65-70.

Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources. (2014). Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources focus to increase production of gurami. Accessed 7th November 2016.

Mirea, C. C., Cristea, V., Dediu, L., Mocanu, M. C., Dicu, D. M. S., & Petrea, St. M. (2013). Determining the Potential of Compensatory Growth of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758) in a Recirculating Aquaculture System. Lucrari Stiintifice-Seria Zootehnie 60, 199-203.

Muchlisin, Z. A., Afrido, F., Murda, T., Fadli, N., Muhammadar, A. A., Jalil, Z., & Yulvizar, C. (2016). The effectiveness of experimental diet with varying levels of papain on the growth performance, survival rate and feed utilization of Keureling fish (Tor tambra). Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2), 172-177.

Nugroho, R.A., Manurung, H., Saraswati, D., Ladyescha, D., & Nur, F.M. (2016). The effects of Terminalia catappa L. leaves extract on the water quality properties, survival and blood profile of ornamental fish (Betta sp) cultured. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2), 241-248.

Promya, J. & Chitmanat, C. (2011). The effects of Spirulina platensis and Cladophora algae on the growth performance, meat quality and immunity stimulating capacity of the African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Int. J. Agric. Biol. 13, 77-82.

Rabadiya, B. & Patel, P. (2010). Spirulina: Potential clinical therapeutic application. J. of Pharmacy Research, 3(8),1726-1732

Ruan, G., Wan, Q., Yao, F., Yang, Y., Zhang, J., Huang, L. (2013). Compensatory growth, proximate composition and amino acid contents after experiencing cycles of feed deprivation and re-feeding in young yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco R.). Iranian J. of Fisheries Sci., 14(1), 201-216.

Sevgili, H., Hossu, B., Emre, Y., and Kanyilmas, M. (2013). Effect of various Length of Single Phase Starvation on Compensatory Growth in Rainbow Trout under Summer Conditions (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 13(3), 465-477.

Simanjuntak, S. B. I., Dana, D., Wirawidjaja, A.M. & Supriyadi, H. (2002). The effectiveness of Spirulina as immunostimulants on patin jambal fish (Pangasius djambal Bleeker). Jurnal Biologi Indonesia, 3(3), 209-218.

Simanjuntak, S. B. I., Dana, D., Wirawidjaja, A. M. & Supriyadi, H. (2003). Histopathological spleen and kidney organ of patin jambal fish (Pangasius djambal Bleeker) giving due Spirulina in a discontinuous manner feed. Biosfera, 20(2), 62-66.

Simanjuntak, S. B. I., Yuwono, E., & Rachmawati, F.N. (2006). Effect of supplementation Spirulina in feed against hematological nilem fish (Osteochilus hasselti C.V.). Journal Rural Development, 6(2), 84-88.

Simanjuntak, S. B. I., Moeljopawiro, S., Artama, W. T. & Wahyuono, S. (2011a). The effect of Spirulina platensis extract on humoral immune of mice after tachyzoite test. Biota 16(1), 70-79.

Simanjuntak, S. B. I., Moeljopawiro, S., Artama, W. T. & Wahyuono, S. (2011b). The responses of immunoglobulin-G and immunoglobulin-M on mice administered with methanol extracts of blue green algae and challenged with tachyzoite. J. Veteriner, 12(4), 281-287.

Simanjuntak, S. B.I., Soedibya, P.H.T. & Wibowo, E.S. (2014). Growth performance of gurami (Osphronemus gouramy Lac.) the given phytoplankton Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris. Proc. of the National Seminar on Accelerating Rural Community Self-Reliance Through empowerment and Technological Innovation.20-21 November 2014.

Simanjuntak, S. B. I., Wibowo, E.S. & Indarmawan. (2015). Variations long giving Spirulina platensis supplementation on growth gurami (Osphronemus gouramy Lac.). Proc. of the National Seminar on Development of Rural Resources and Local Wisdom V. 19-20 November 2015.

Sitanggang, M. & Sarwono, B. (2001). Cultivation of Gurami. Jakarta: Penebar Swadaya.

Tian, X., Fang, J. & Dong, S. (2010). Effects of starvation and recovery on the growth, metabolism and energy budget of juvenile tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). Aquaculture, 310(1), 122-129

Turano, M. J., Borski, R. J., & Daniels, H. V. (2007). Compensatory Growth of Pond-reared Hybrid Striped Bass, Morone chrysops x Morone saxatilis, Fingerlings. J. of The World Aquaculture Society 38(2), 250-260.

Turano, M. J., Borski, R.J., & Daniels, H. V. (2008). Effects of cyclic feeding on compensatory growth of hybrid bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxitilis) foodfish and water quality in production ponds. Aquaculture Research, 39(14), 1514-1523.

Ungsethaphand, T., Peerapornpisal Y., Whangehai, N., & Sardsud, U. (2010). Effect of feeding Spirulina platensis on growth and carcass composition of hybrid red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus). Maejo Int. J. Sci. & Tech. 4(2), 331-336.

Vonshak, A. (1997). Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira): Physiology, Cell Biology. London: Taylor and Francis.

Wang, L., Pan, B., Sheng, J., Xu, J., & Hu, Q. (2007).Antioxidant activity of Spirulina platensis ex- tracts by supercritical carbon dioxide extrac- tion. Food Chemistry, 105(1), 36-41.

Zeinab, A. K., Aly, A. K. Faiza and E.M. Fatma, 2015. Effect of Spirulina platensis and Lactobacillus rhamnosa on growth and biochemical performance of Nile Tilapia (Orechromis niloticus) fingerlings. Intern. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 4(4), 747-763.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.