Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Resins and Essential Oil From Pine (Pinus merkusii, Pinuso ocarpa, Pinus insularis) and Agathis (Agathis loranthifolia)

Mardho Tillah, Irmanida Batubara, Rita Kartika Sari


The most common human pathogen that colonizes in a third of healthy people around the world are Staphylococcus aureus, and one of the materials allegedly able to overcome the pathogen is resin. Resin has been used in folk medicine for thousands of years to treat diseases. The antimicrobial activity of natural resins can be associated with a variety of organic compounds contained in them such as diterpenoids and triterpenoids. This research aimed to explore the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Pinus merkusii, P. oocarpa, P. insularis, Agathis loranthifolia resins and essential oil. Resin was separated by distillation process to get essential oil and the residue was extracted using n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and methanol (MeOH). Antioxidant activity was performed by DPPH (1,1diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) radical scavenging method. The antibacterial activity of resins and essential oil of the samples determined using the disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results showed that the yield of resin extract was ranging from 8.44 % to 95.56%. All extracts and essential oil could not inhibit E coli growth but inhibit the S. aureus growth. This experiment concluded that resin n-hexane extract from P.oocarpa was the most potent as antibacterial activity against S. aureus. All of the samples used had less potential antioxidant activity compared to positive control ascorbic acid. Result of this study show that pine resin from Indonesia has potential as an antibacterial agent. 


antibacterial activity; antioxidant; essential oil; resin

Full Text:



Assimopoulou, A. N., Zlatanos, S. N., & Papageorgiou, V. P. (2005). Antioxidant activity of natural resins and bioactive triterpenes in oil substrates. Food chemistry, 92(4), 721-727.

Batubara, I., Mitsunaga, T., & Ohasi, H. (2009). Screening antiacne potency of Indonesian medicinal plants; antibacterial, lipase inhibition, and antioxidant activities. J Wood Sci, 55(3), 230-235

Dimkic, I., Ristivojevic, P., Janakiev, T., Beric, T., Trifkovic, J., Milojkovic-Opsenica, J., & Stankovic, S. (2016). Phenolic profiles and antimicrobial activity of various plant resins as potential botanical sources of Serbian propolis. Industrial Crops and Products, 94, 856-871.

Fraternale, D., Sosa, S., Ricci, D., Genovese, S., Messina, F., Tomasini, S., Montanari, F., & Marcotullio, M. (2011). Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antifungal furanosesquiterpenoids isolated from Commiphoraerythraea (Ehrenb.) Engl. resin. Fitoterapia, 82(4), 654-661.

Gonzalez, M. A. (2014). Synthetic derivatives of aromatic abietane diterpenoids and their biological activities. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 87, 834-842.

Himejima, M., Hobson, K. R., Otsuka, T., Wood, D. L., & Kubo, I. (1992). Antimicrobial terpenes from oleoresin of ponderosa pine tree Pinus Ponderosa: a defense mechanism against microbial invasion. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 18(10), 1809-1818.

Mohamed, A. A., Ali, S. I., EL-Baz, F. K., Hegazy, A. K., & Kord, M. A. (2014). Chemical composition of essential oil and in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of crude extracts of Commiphoramyrrha resin. Industrial Crops and Products, 57, 10-16.

Mun Su-Hyun, Joung Dae-Ki, Kim Yong-Sik, Kang Ok-Hwa, Kim Sung-Bae, Seo Yun-Soo, Kim Youn-Chul, Lee Dong-Sung, Shin Dong-Won, Kweon Kee-Tae, & Kwon Dong-Yeul. (2013). Synergistic antibacterial effect of curcumin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Phytomedicine, 20(8), 714-718.

Politeo, O., Jukic, M., & Milos, M. (2007). Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of free volatile aglycones from basil (Ocimumbasilicum L.) compared with its essential oil. Food Chem, 101(1), 379-385.

Qadir, M., Shah, W. A., & Banday, J. A. (2014). GC-MS analysis, Antibacterial, Antioxidant and Anticancer activity of essential oil of Pinusroxburghii from Kashmir, india. International Journal of Pharmacological Research, 4(2), 61-64.

Salazar-Aranda, R., Pérez-Lopez, L. A., Lopez-Arroyo, J., Alanís-Garza, B. A., & Waksman de Torres, N. (2011). Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of plants from northeast of Mexico. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011.

Salem, M. Z. M., Ali, H. M. , & Basalah, M. O. (2014). Essential Oils from Wood, Bark, and Needles of PinusroxburghiiSarg from Alexandria, Egypt: Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities. BioResources, 9(4), 7454-7466.

Savluchinske-Feio, S., Curto, M. J. M., Gigante, B., & Roseiro, J. C. (2006). Antimicrobial activity of resin acid derivatives. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 72(3), 430-436.

Shuaib, M., Ali, A., Ali, M., Panda, B., & Ahmad, M. (2013). Antibacterial activity of resin rich plant extracts. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, 5(4), 265-269.

Sipponen, A., & Laitinen, K. (2011). Antimicrobial properties of natural coniferous rosin in the European Pharmacopoeia challenge test. APMIS, 119(10), 720-724.

Tóro, R. M., Gessner, A. A. F., Furtado, N. A. J. C., Ceccarelli, P. S., Sérgio de Albuquerque, & Bastos, J. K. (2003). Activity of the Pinuselliottii resin compounds against Lernaeacyprinacea in vitro. Veterinary Parasitology, 118(1), 143-149.

Urzúa, A., Rezende, M. C., Mascayano, C., & Vásquez, L. (2008). A Structure-Activity study of antibacterial diterpenoids. Molecules, 13(4), 882-891.

Wijayati, N., Astutiningsih, C., & Mulyati, S. (2014). Transformasi α-Pinena dengan Bakteri Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 25923. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 6(1), 24-28.

Williams, C. J. (2011). Medical Plants in Australia Volume 2 Gums, Resins, Tannin and essential Oils. Australia: Rosenberg.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License

Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education by Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Semarang is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licensep-ISSN (Print) 2085-191X | e-ISSN (Online) 2338-7610