Synthesis of Triacetin Catalyzed by Activated Natural Zeolite Under Microwave Irradiation

Dzikri Hamzah, Taufik Rinaldi, Marwan Marwan, Wahyu Rinaldi

Abstract

Esterification of glycerol with acetic acid under microwave irradiation in the presence of activated natural zeolite was investigated. Natural zeolite was collected from Ujung Pancu (Aceh Besar) and chemically activated with hydrochloric acid. The reaction was carried out in a stirred glass flask reactor placed inside microwave oven. Experimental variables include microwave transmission time, molar ratio of glycerol to acetic acid, and catalyst loading. XRD profile of activated zeolite showed an increase of Si/Al ratio to 6.042 and the crystallinity decreased slightly by 12.23%, mainly due to dealumination during chemical treatment. Qualitative analysis by FTIR shows that the reaction product obtained by microwave heating contains ester group (triacetin) at wavelength 1706.669 cm-1, while the quantitative analysis by acidi-alkalimetry titration indicates the highest glycerol conversion of 93.033% at the reaction condition of the molar ratio of 1:9, catalyst loading of 3%, and microwave transmission of 10 minutes. The present work suggests that microwave can be utilized as efficient heating technique in esterification of glycerol to triacetin.

Keywords

Additive; glycerol; microwave; natural zeolite; triacetin.

Full Text:

PDF

References

Darmansyah, Ginting, S. B., Widiana, D., Saputra, H. 2013. Sintesis H-ZSM-5 dari Zeolit Alam Lampung (ZAL) dengan Sumber Silika Penambah Bagasse Fly Ash (BFA) (Penentuan Rasio TPABr/SiO2 untuk Memperoleh Produk H-ZSM-5 yang Memiliki Kristalinitas Optimum). Prosiding SNTK TOPI. 3: 273-283.

Ertan, A., Ozkan, F. C. 2005. CO2 and N2 Adsorption on the Acid (HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, and H3PO4) Treated Zeolites. Adsorption Journal. 11(Suppl 1): 151-156.

FBI-A01-03. Standard Method for Determination of Alkyl Ester Biodiesel Acid.

Fessenden, R. J., Fessenden, J. S. 1982. Kimia Organik. Erlangga. Jakarta.

Sun, J., Tong, X., Yu, L., Wan, J. 2016. An Efficient and Sustainable Production of Triasetin from the Acetylation of Glycerol Using Magnetic Solid Acid Catalysts under Mild Conditions. Catalysis Today. 264: 115–122.

Katryniok, B., Paul, S., Belliere-Baca, V., Rey, P., Dumeignil, F. 2010. Glycerol Dehydration to Acrolein in the Context of New Uses of Glycerol. Green Chemistry. 12(12): 2079 - 2098.

Kurniasari, L., Djaeni, M., Purbasari, A. 2011. Aktivasi Zeolit Alam Sebagai Adsorben pada Alat Pengering Bersuhu Rendah. Jurnal Reaktor. 13(3): 178-184.

Lertsathapornsuk, V., Pairintra, R., Krisnangkura, K., Chindaruksa, S. 2003. Direct Conversion of Used Vegetable Oil to Biodiesel and Its Use as An Alternative Fuel for Compression Ignition Engine. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Energy and Green Architecture.

Lestari, D.Y. 2010. Kajian Modifikasi dan Karakterisasi Zeolit Alam dari Berbagai Negara. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Kimia Dan Pendidikan Kimia. Yogyakarta.

Liao, X., Zhu, Y., Wang, S., Chen, H., Li, Y. 2010. Theoretical Elucidation of Acetylating Glycerol with Acetic Acid and Acetic Anhydride. Applied Catalyst B: Environmental. 94(1-2): 64-70.

Luque, R., Budarin, V., Clark, J.H., Macquarrie, D.J. 2008. Glycerol Transformations on Polysaccharide Derived Mesoporous Material. Applied Catalyst B: Environmental. 82(3-4): 157-162.

Martín, Á., Navarrete, A. 2018. Microwave-Assisted Process Intensification Techniques. Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry. 11: 70-75.

Marwan, Indarti, E. 2016. Hydrated Calcined Cyrtopleura Costata Seashells as An Effective Solid Catalyst for Microwave-Assisted Preparation of Palm Oil Biodiesel. Energy Conversion and Management. 11: 319-325.

Marwan, Suhendrayatna, Indarti, E. 2015. Preparation of Biodiesel from Microalgae and Palm Oil by Direct Transesterification in a Batch Microwave Reactor. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 622: 012040.

Mufrodi, Z., Sutijan, Rochmadi, Budiman, A. 2014. Chemical Kinetics for Synthesis of Triacetin From Biodiesel Byproduct. International Journal of Chemistry. 4(2): 100-107.

Nuryoto, Sulistyo, H., Rahayu, S.S., Sutijan. 2010. Uji Performa Katalisator Resin Penukar Ion Untuk Pengolahan Hasil Samping Pembuatan Biodiesel Menjadi Triacetin. Seminar Nasional Rekayasa Kimia dan Proses. Semarang.

Sari, N., Helwani, Z., Rionaldo, H. 2015. Esterifikasi Gliserol Dari Produk Samping Biodiesel Menjadi Triasetin Menggunakan Katalis Zeolit Alam. Jurnal Online Mahasiswa Fakultas Teknik Universitas Riau. 2(1): 1-7.

Udyani, K., Wulandari, Y. 2014. Aktivasi Zeolit Alam Untuk Peningkatan Kemampuan Sebagai Adsorben Pada Pemurnian Biodiesel. Seminar Nasional Sains dan Teknologi Terapan II. Surabaya.

Vogel, A.I. 1989. Vogels’s Textbook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis. Longman Scientific and Technical. Essex.

Windrianto, I.K.H., Satriadi, H. 2012. Produksi Triacetin Dengan Proses Esterifikasi Gliserol Dan Asam Asetat Menggunakan Katalis Asam Sulfat. Jurnal Teknologi Kimia dan Industri. 1(1): 508-512.

Yuan, Z., Wang, J., Wang, L., Xie, W., Chen, P., Hou, Z., Zheng, X. 2010. Biodiesel Derived Glycerol Hydrogenolysis to 1,2-Propanediol on Cu/Mgo Catalysts. Bioresource Technology. 101(18): 7088–7092.

Wang, Z.Q., Chang, Z., Yu, W.J., Li, L.D., Zhang, M.H., Zhang, Z.B. 2016. A Swelling-Changeful Catalyst for Glycerol Acetylation with Controlled Acid Concentration. Fuel Processing Technology. 142: 228–234.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.