Synthesis of Phosphorylated Sugar Palm (Aren) Starch Using Low Level Sodium Tripolyphosphate (STPP)

Asaf Kleopas Sugih, Jordi Loanda, Susiana Prasetyo


Sugar palm or aren (Arenga pinnata) is a traditional source of starch widely cultivated throughout Indonesia. Despite its potentiality to be used as feedstock for food industries, there has been very little research reported on sugar palm starch characterization and modification. This paper describes a preliminary experimental study on the chemical modification, i.e. phosphorylation of sago palm starch using low level of Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), and characterization of some important physicochemical and functional properties of the modified products. Starch phosphate synthesis was conducted at an initial pH of 9, reaction temperatures of 120-140 oC, and STPP intakes of 0.5-1.5%-weight based on dry starch. The experimental result shows that Degree of Substitution (DS) of the obtained products is accessible in the range of 0.0013 – 0.0068. An increase in reaction temperature as well as STPP intake leads to products with higher DS values. The modified starch products exhibit higher swelling power (16.57-24.81 g/g) and solubility (9.12-22.79 %-w/w) compared to native sugar palm starch (swelling power and solubility of 14.50 g/g and 7.91 %-w/w, respectively). Phosphorylated starch products also have significantly improved paste clarity clarity and water/ oil absorption capacity compared to native sugar palm starch. The result suggests that phosphorylation is a promising method to enhance the properties of sugar palm starch.


Aren; Arenga pinnata; phosphorylation; starch; sugar palm

Full Text:



Adawiyah, D. R., Sasaki, T., Kohyama, K. 2013. Characterization of arenga starch in comparison with sago starch. Carbohydrate Polymers. 92: 2306– 2313.

Chiu, C. W., Solarek, D. 2009. Modification of Starches, in J. Bemiller and R. Whistler (Ed.). Starch: Chemistry and Technology, 3rd Ed. Academic Press. Burlington. 629.

Committee on Food Chemical Codex, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. 2003. Food Chemicals Codex. 5th Ed. The National Academies Press, Washington DC.

Li, J., Corke, H. 1999. Physicochemical Properties of Normal and Waxy Job's Tears (Coix lachryma-jobi L.) Starch. Cereal Chemistry. 76: 413-416.

Lim., S., Seib, P. A. 1993. Preparation and Pasting Properties of Wheat and Corn Starch Phosphates. Cereal Chemistry. 70: 137-144.

Lin, Q., Xiao, H., Zhao, J., Li, L., Yu, F. 2009. Characterization of the Pasting, Flow and Rheological Properties of Native and Phosphorylated Rice Starches. Starch/ Starke. 61: 709-715.

Mishra, S., Rai, T. 2006. Morphology and functional properties of corn, potato and tapioca starches. Food Hydrocolloids. 20: 557-566.

Mogea, J., Seibert, B., Smits, W. 1991. Multipurpose palms: the sugar palm (Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merr.). Agroforestry Systems. 13: 111-129.

Muhammad, K., Hussin, F, Man, Y. C., Ghazali, H. M., Kennedy, J.F. 2000. Effect of pH on phosphorylation of sago starch. Carbohydrate Polymers. 42: 85-90.

Nathania, I., Sugih, A. K., Muljana, H. 2017. Preliminary Study on the Synthesis of Phosphorylated Mung Bean Starch: The Effect of pH on the Physicochemical and Functional Properties. Indonesian Journal of Chemistry. 17: 401-406.

Passauer, L., Bender, H., Fischer, S. 2010. Synthesis and characterisation of starch phosphates. Carbohydrate Polymers. 82: 809-814.

Sitohy, M. Z., El-Saadany, S. S., Labib, S. M., Ramadan, M. F. 2000. Physicochemical Properties of Different Types of Starch Phosphate Monoesters. Starch/Starke. 52: 101–105.

Solarek, D. 1986. Phosphorylated Starches and Miscellaneous Inorganic Esters, in O.B. Wurzburg (ed.). Modified Starches. Properties and Uses. CRC Press. Boca Raton. 97-112.

Stahl, J.A., Lobato, L. P., Bochi, V. C., Kubota, E. H., Gutkoski, L. C., Emanuelli, T. 2007. Physicochemical properties of Pinhão (Araucaria angustifolia, Bert, O. Ktze) starch phosphates. LWT - Food Science and Technology. 40: 1206-1214.

Sugih, A. K., Dewi, A., Yukano, D., Muljana, H. 2016. A Preliminary Study on the Synthesis of Phosphorylated Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) Starch. in L. Sutiarso and H. Z. Amanah (Ed.). Recent Technology on Agricultural and Bio-system Engineering, Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Agricultural and Biosystem Engineering. Departemen Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta. C18.1-C18.5

Sugih, A. K., Muljana, H., Surya, W., Anggraini, T.M. Synthesis and Characterisation of Phosphorylated Sago (Metroxylon sago) Starch. 2013. in Starch Update-2013, Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Starch Technology. National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC). Bangkok. 91-96.

Sugih, A. K., Nathania, I., Muljana, H. 2015. Synthesis and Characterisation of Phosphorylated Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea L.) Starch. in Starch Update-2015, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Starch Technology. National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC). Bangkok. 65-70

Wina, E., Evans, A. J., Lowry, J. B. 1986. The Composition of Pith from the Sago Palms Metroxylon sagu and Arenga pinnata. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 37: 352-358.


  • There are currently no refbacks.