Antifungal Lotion as Value-Added Product for Harvested BSFL Processing: Simple Process Design and Economic Evaluation

Daniel Setiyo Nugroho, Cheng Yu Shen, Tzung Han Chou, Nina Hartini, Hsiang Ya Chiu


Advancing the value of products derived from insect biomass is a potential way to increase the demand of processing insect as renewable and sustainable resources. Among several species of insect, black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) is promising biomass source because of its favorable characteristics such as easy cultivation, fast-growing, and worldwide distribution. One problem that could limit the development of insect-based bioproduct is the low market price and displeasing uses for edible food. To overcome this problem, value-added product development is necessary to carried out. Thus, establish an antifungal lotion using extracted materials from BSFL biomass was discussed in this report followed by the economic evaluation and sensitivity analysis. The result reveal that equipment availability in market and raw material readiness espouse the production expediency. From the economic aspect, the direct fixed capital cost (DFC) for a plant of this capacity is around US$3.6 million, or approximately 6 times the total equipment cost. Thus, the net profitability will remain stable even the market price of BSFL might fluctuate in the range of 20%. In contrary, the change in main product price was impactful to the rate of return (ROI), internal rate of return (IRR) and, payback time (PBT) value. The overall result suggests that this project is worthy to being built.


Antifungal lotion, BSFL, Economic evaluation, SuperPro Designer

Full Text:



Alliedmarketresearch. 2019. Edible Insects Market by Product Type (Whole Insect, Insect Powder, Insect Meal, Insect Type (Crickets, Black Soldier Fly, Mealworms), Application (Animal Feed, Protein Bar and Shakes, Bakery, Confectionery, Beverages) - Global Forecast to 2030 [Online]. Research and Markets. [Accessed 5 Oct 2019 2019].

Bajić, B. Ž., Vučurović, D. G., Dodić, S. N., Grahovac, J. A., Dodić, J. M. 2017. Process model economics of xanthan production from confectionery industry wastewaters. Journal of environmental management. 203(3): 999-1004.

Caligiani, A., Marseglia, A., Leni, G., Baldassarre, S., Maistrello, L., Dossena, A., Sforza, S. 2018. Composition of black soldier fly prepupae and systematic approaches for extraction and fractionation of proteins, lipids and chitin. Food research international. 105(March): 812-820.

Choi, W. H. & Jiang, M. 2014. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of hexanedioic acid isolated from Hermetia illucens larvae. Journal of applied biomedicine. 12(3): 179-189.

De Aguiar, A. C., Osorio-Tobón, J. F., Silva, L. P. S., Barbero, G. F., Martínez, J. 2018. Economic analysis of oleoresin production from malagueta peppers (Capsicum frutescens) by supercritical fluid extraction. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 133(1): 86-93.

FAO. 2019. Global Initiative on Food Loss and Waste Reduction [Online]. Food and Agriculture Organizationof the United Nations. [Accessed 19 Dec 2019].

Flora, J. R., Mcanally, A. S., Petrides, D. 1998. Treatment plant instructional modules based on SuperPro Designer® v. 2.7. Environmental modelling & software. 14(1): 69-80.

Gao, Z., Wang, W., Lu, X., Zhu, F., Wang, X., Lei, C., Liu, W. 2019. Bioconversion performance and life table of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) on fermented maize straw. Journal of Cleaner Production. 230(September): 974-980.

Khosravi, A., Shokri, H., Darabi, M., Kashani, A., Mansouri, P., Naser, A. 2009. Comparative study on the effects of a new antifungal lotion (Artemisia sieberi essential oil) and a clotrimazole lotion in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor. Journal de Mycologie Médicale. 19(1): 17-21.

Kim, H.-W., Setyabrata, D., Lee, Y. J., Jones, O. G., Kim, Y. H. B. 2016. Pre-treated mealworm larvae and silkworm pupae as a novel protein ingredient in emulsion sausages. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. 38(December): 116-123.

Lalander, C., Diener, S., Magri, M. E., Zurbrügg, C., Lindström, A., Vinnerås, B. 2013. Faecal sludge management with the larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)—From a hygiene aspect. Science of the Total Environment. 458-460(August): 312-318.

Li, Q., Zheng, L., Cai, H., Garza, E., Yu, Z., Zhou, S. 2011. From organic waste to biodiesel: Black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, makes it feasible. Fuel. 90(4): 1545-1548.

Li, W., Li, Q., Zheng, L., Wang, Y., Zhang, J., Yu, Z., Zhang, Y. 2015. Potential biodiesel and biogas production from corncob by anaerobic fermentation and black soldier fly. Bioresource Technology. 194(October): 276-282.

Manurung, R., Supriatna, A., Esyanthi, R. R. & Putra, R. E. 2016. Bioconversion of Rice straw waste by black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens L.) : Optimal feed rate for biomass production. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 4(4): 1036-1041.

Nguyen, H. C., Liang, S.-H., Li, S.-Y., Su, C.-H., Chien, C.-C., Chen, Y.-J., Huong, D. T. M. 2018. Direct transesterification of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) for biodiesel production. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. 85(April): 165-169.

Parjikolaei, B. R., Errico, M., El-Houri, R. B., Christensen, K. V., Fretté, X. C. 2016. Green Approaches to Extract Astaxanthin from Shrimp Waste: Process Design and Economic Evaluation. Computer Aided Chemical Engineering. Elsevier.

Petrides, D., Carmichael, D., Siletti, C., Koulouris, A. 2014. Biopharmaceutical process optimization with simulation and scheduling tools. Bioengineering, 1(4): 154-187.

Surendra, K. C., Olivier, R., Tomberlin, J. K., Jha, R. & Khanal, S. K. 2016. Bioconversion of organic wastes into biodiesel and animal feed via insect farming. Renewable Energy. 98(December): 197-202.

Tanasale, M., Telussa, I., Sakewael, S., Kakerissa, L. 2016. Extraction and characterization of chitosan from windu shrimp shell (penaeus monodon) and depolymerization chitosan process with hydrogen peroxide based on heating temperature variations. Indonesian Journal of Chemical Research. 3(2): 308-316.

Wang, C., Qian, L., Wang, W., Wang, T., Deng, Z., Yang, F., Xiong, J., Feng, W. 2017. Exploring the potential of lipids from black soldier fly: New paradigm for biodiesel production (I). Renewable Energy. 111(October): 749-756.

Yagiela, J. A., Dowd, F. J., Johnson, B., Mariotti, A., Neidle, E. A. 2010. Pharmacology and Therapeutics for Dentistry-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Yu, M., Li, Z., Chen, W., Rong, T., Wang, G., Li, J., Ma, X. 2019. Use of Hermetia illucens larvae as a dietary protein source: Effects on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in finishing pigs. Meat Science. 158(December): 107837.


  • There are currently no refbacks.