Production of Natural Colorant by Monascus Purpureus FNCC 6008 using Rice and Cassava as Carbon Substrates

Margono Margono, Paryanto Paryanto, Vina Hanifa, Candra Abimanyu


Consumer recognition of the adverse effects of synthetic colorant has increased awareness in utilizing natural colorants as an alternative. One of them is a microbial colorant and it is already studied for its safety and functional properties in the human body, i.e. hypercholesterolemia, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer. The functional properties of microbial colorant have driven many kinds of research about natural colorant produced by the microorganism. Monascus pigment is one of the popular red pigment synthesized by mold Monascus purpureus. This research was conducted to investigate the effects of particle size and incubation temperature on color value and water solubility of the natural colorant produced by M. purpureus FNCC 6008 using rice and cassava as carbon substrates. Every experiment was conducted in an erlenmeyer flask filled by 15 g of substrates, sterilized and incubated in an incubator chamber. Three particle sizes of 8, 10, and 16 mesh were employed on the incubation temperatures of 30, 32, and 34 oC for 14 days. Two parameters were measured from the sample to evaluate the results of the fermentation process, i.e. color intensity and water solubility of product. The highest color intensity of 59.6 CVU/gds was obtained from the rice substrate at the particle size of 10 mesh and incubation temperature of 32 oC. That particular fermentation condition resulted in a product with 71.4% product solubility.


color value; microbial colorant; Monascus purpureus; natural colorant; product solubility

Full Text:



Agboyibor, C., Kong, W. B., Chen, D., Zhang, A. M., Niu, S. Q. 2018. Monascus pigments production, composition, bioactivity and its application: A review. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 16: 433-447.

Ardini, S.E.S., Suprihadi, A., Rukmi, M. G. I. 2014. Produksi Pigmen Kapang Monascus sp . dari Angkak pada Substrat Tongkol Jagung ( Zea mays ) dengan Variasi Ukuran Substrat dan Kadar Air. Jurnal Biologi . 3(3): 16-24.

Asben, A., Permata, D. A. 2018. Pengaruh Ukuran Partikel Ampas Sagu dalam Produksi Pigmen Angkak Menggunakan Monascus Purpureus. Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Andalas. 22(2): 111-117.

Babitha, S., Soccol, C. R., Pandey, A. 2006. Jackfruit seed-A Novel Substrate for The Production of Monascus pigments through Solid State Fermentation. Food Technology and Biotechnology. 44(4): 465–471.

Huang, Q., Zhang, H., Xue, D. 2017. Enhancement of antioxidant activity of Radix Puerariae and red yeast rice by mixed fermentation with Monascus purpureus. Food Chemistry. 226: 89–94.

Joshi, V. K., Attri, D., Bala, A., Bhushan, S. 2003. Microbial Pigments. Indian Journal of Biotechnology. 2: 362-369.

Heer, K., Sharma, S. 2017. Microbial Pigments As A Natural Color: A Review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 8(5): 1913–1922.

Hilares, R.T., de Souza, R. A., Marcelino, P. F., da Silva, S. S., Dragone, G., Mussatto, S. I., Santos, J. C. 2018. Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate as a potential feedstock for red pigment production by Monascus ruber. Food Chemistry. 245: 786–791.

Parmar, R. S., Singh, C. 2018. A comprehensive study of eco-friendly natural pigment and its applications. Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports. 13: 22–26.

Priatni, S., Damayanti, S., Saraswaty, V., Ratnaningrum, D., Singgih, M. 2014. The Utilization of Solid Substrates on Monascus Fermentation for Anticholesterol Agent Production. Procedia Chemistry. 9: 34–39.

Srianta, I., Zubaidah, E., Estiasih, T., Yamada, M., Harijono. 2016. Comparison of Monascus purpureus growth, pigment production and composition on different cereal substrates with solid state fermentation. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 7: 181–186.

Suraiya, S., Lee, J. M., Cho, H. J., Jang, W. J., Kim, D. G., Kim, Y. O., Kong, I. S. 2018. Monascus spp. fermented brown seaweeds extracts enhance bio-functional activities. Food Bioscience. 21: 90–99.

Tuli, H. S., Chaudhary, P., Beniwal, V., Sharma, A. K. 2015. Microbial pigments as natural color sources: current trends and future perspectives. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 52(8): 4669–4678.

Velmurugan, P., Hur, H., Balachandar, V., Kamala-Kannan, S., Lee, K. J., Lee, S. M., Chae, J. C., Shea, P. J., Oh, B. T. 2011. Monascus pigment production by solid-state fermentation with corn cob substrate. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 112(6): 590–594.

Zhang, B. B., Lu, L. P., Xu, G. R. 2015. Why solid-state fermentation is more advantageous over submerged fermentation for converting high concentration of glycerol into Monacolin K by Monascus purpureus 9901: A mechanistic study. Journal of Biotechnology. 206: 60–65.

Zubaidah, E., Sriherfyna, H. 2015. Formulasi Laru Angkak ( Pengaruh Jenis Bahan Pengisi Terhadap Viabilitas Monascus Purpureus Dan Kadar Lovastatin Angkak Hasil Fermentasi ). Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian. 16(2): 107–116.


  • There are currently no refbacks.