PENGARUH KONSENTRASI BUAH CABAI MERAH (Capsicum annum L.) DAN BUAH CABAI RAWIT (Capsicum frutescens L.) DALAM PRODUKSI BIOGAS DARI SAMPAH ORGANIK

Khamdan Cahyari, Alvin Sahroni

Abstract

Meningkatnya kesejahteraan masyarakat Indonesia berdampak positif bagi peningkatan jumlah pasar tradisional dan komoditas perdagangannya. Namun, permasalahan sampah yang ditimbulkan oleh kegiatan perdagangan tersebut masih belum dapat ditangani dengan baik. Tidak hanya itu, sampah pasar tradisional yang hanya ditimbun di area tempat pembuangan akhir (TPA) telah menyebabkan pencemaran lingkungan berupa kontaminasi air tanah, emisi gas rumah kaca dan masalah kesehatan. Sampah pasar tradisional memiliki potensi yang besar untuk diolah menjadi biogas melalui metode anaerobic digestion. Dengan adanya mikroorganisme, proses ini mampu mendegradasi sampah organik menjadi bahan organik yang stabil dan biogas (metana dan karbondioksida). Salah satu faktor yang mempengaruhi proses tersebut adalah adanya senyawa-senyawa antibiotik yang terkandung dalam sampah. Senyawa capsaicinoid dalam sampah buah cabai merupakan senyawa yang berperan dalam rasa pedas cabai memiliki pengaruh negatif terhadap kinerja mikroorganisme dalam mendegradasi sampah menjadi biogas. Pengaruh konsentrasi buah cabai terhadap produksi biogas ini belum banyak diteliti dan diketahui sehingga perlu dilakukan penelitian untuk menentukan konsentrasi minimal yang menyebabkan proses inhibisi (penghambatan).Hasil penelitian membuktikan adanya pengaruh konsentrasi buah cabai (capsaicinoid) terhadap produksi biogas. Sampah pasar tradisional dengan konsentrasi 8 g VS/liter yang diumpankan terhadap konsorsium mikroorganisme tanpa adanya buah cabai menghasilkan yield biogas yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan sampah yang tercampur buah cabai. Semakin tinggi konsentrasi buah cabai semakin besar pengaruh penghambatannya (inhibition). Hal ini ditunjukkan dengan menurunnya yield biogas yang dihasilkan. Konsentrasi buah cabai yang menghasilkan yield optimal diperoleh pada nilai konsentrasi 5 dan 8 g VS/liter untuk cabai merah dan cabai rawit secara berturut-turut. Yield tertinggi biogas dan gas metana ialah 35 dan 12 ml/g VS (cabai rawit). Persentase reduksi VS relatif cukup tinggi mencapai 75%.


The rising of Indonesian welfare has a positive impact towards the number of traditional market and its commodity. However, the problem of waste as a result of the market activity still not handled properly. Moreover, the waste of traditional market which remains in the landfill resulted in pollution such as groundwater contamination, green house emission and also health problems.The waste of traditional market has a big potential to be processed as biogas through anaerobic digestion method. With the presence of microorganism, this process is capable of degrading organic waste into stable organic material and biogas (methane and carbon dioxyde). One of the factor which affecting the process are the antibiotic components contained by the waste. Capsaicinoid which found in chili is the component which responsible to provide the spicy taste, has a negative effect towards the microorganism in degrading the waste into biogas. The effect of chili towards biogas production is not widely known that needs to be investigated, therefore a research needs to be conducted to determine the minimum concentration which resulted in inhibition process. The research result shows the influence of the concentration of chili (capsaicinoid) towards biogas production. Traditional market waste with 8g VS/litre which exposed to microorganism without the existence of chili reulted in higher amount of biogas than the one which mixed with chili. The bigger the concentration of chili, the bigger the inhibition. This is demonstrated by the the decreasing number of the yield of the biogas. The concentration of chili which can resulted in optimal yield production obtained at concentration value of 5 and 8 g VS/ litre for red chili and cayenne pepper respectively. The highest yield of biogas and methane are 35 and 12 ml/g VS (cayenne pepper). The VS reduction percentage is relatively high to 75%.


Keywords

biogas, organic waste, chili, capsaicinoid, anaerobic digestion

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