Production of Single Cell Protein from Banana Peel Waste in Batch Fermentation Using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

Azwar Azwar, Mukhlishien Mukhlishien, Abrar Muslim, Putri Hadissa, Utari Hadi Ningsih, M. F. Zanil, J. M. Ali


Through engineering the fermentation process, it is hoped that new data can be obtained that will explain the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to maximize the production of single-cell protein (SCP). SCP microorganisms have a high protein content, making them suitable for use as a human protein source as well as food additives in the cattle and fishing industries. The goal of this experiment is to see if the microbe Saccharomyces cerevisiae can generate SCP from banana peel waste. Some of the process variables used in this study include the variation in nutrition, fermentation time, and the effect of pH variations on SCP production. Where the variation in pH used is 3; 3.5; 4; 4.5; 5; and 5.5. As for the nutrients used, namely (NH4)2SO4 and KH2PO4 with a variety of nutrients, namely 0; 0.3; 0.6; 0.9; and 1.2 grams. Then the fermentation time was varied to 1,2,3,4 days. This study also analyzed the growth of microorganism cells using wet weight and dry weight with variations in pH and nutrition. The variation in nutrition is the same as the variation in the previous analysis of protein content, and the fermentation time is 1,2,3,4,5,6, and 7. In the analysis of protein content with Kjeldahl protein, the obtained optimal pH is 4.5 and the optimal protein content is 0.6 grams. As for the fermentation time, the optimal protein content is obtained on the 4th day. For the growth of microorganisms, the optimal pH is obtained at a pH value of 4.5 with optimal nutrition of 0.6 grams, and the optimal fermentation time is obtained on the 7th day.


Single cell protein; Banana peel waste; Yeast; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Batch fermentation

Full Text:



Huang, C., Chen, X., Xiong, L., Chen, X., Ma, L., Chen, Y. 2013. Single cell oil production from low-cost substrates: The possibility and potential of its industrialization. Biotechnology Advances. 31(2): 129–139.

Hulsen, T., Sander, E. M., Jensen, P. D., Batstone, D. J. 2020. Application of purple phototrophic bacteria in a biofilm photobioreactor for single cell protein production: Biofilm vs suspended growth. Water Research. 181: 115909.

Jabart, E., Molho, J., Sin, K., Stansfield, B., Jared, M. C. 2020. Single-cell protein expression of hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes using Single-Cell Westerns. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. 149: 115–122.

Kustyawati, M. E., Sari, M., Haryati, T. 2013. Efek Fermentasi Dengan Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Terhadap Karakteristik Biokimia Tapioka (Effect of Fermentation Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the Biochemical Properties Tapioca). Agritech. 33(03): 281–287.

La Turner, Z. W., Bennett, G. N., San, K. Y., Stadler, L. B. 2020. Single cell protein production from food waste using purple non-sulfur bacteria shows economically viable protein products have higher environmental impacts. Journal of Cleaner Production. 276: 123114.

Magalhaes, C. E. B., Souza-Netob, M. S., Spartaco, A., Matosb, I. T. S. R. 2018. Candida tropicalis able to produce yeast single cell protein using sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate as carbon source. Biotechnology Research and Innovation. 2(1): 19–21.

Maryana, L., Anam, S., Nugrahani, A. W. 2016. Produksi Protein Sel Tunggal Dari Kultur Rhizopus Oryzae Dengan Medium Limbah Cair Tahu., Jurnal Farmasi Galenika. 2(2): 132–137.

Muniz, C. E. S., Ângela, M. S., Thaisa, A. S. G., Hugo, M. L. O., Líbia, S. C., Rennan, P. G. 2020. Solid-state fermentation for single-cell protein enrichment of guava and cashew by-products and inclusion on cereal bars. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 25(March): 101576.

Nasseri, A.T., Rasoul, S., Morrowat, M. H., Ghasemi, Y. 2011. Single Cell Protein: Production and Process. American Journal of Food Technology. 6(2): 103-116.

Nasution, M. N., Feliatra, F., Effendi, I. 2021 Analisis Pertumbuhan Protein Sel Tunggal (Pst) Bakteri Bacillus Cereus Dengan Media Yang Berbeda. Jurnal Perikanan dan Kelautan. 26(1): 47.

Patelski, P., Stanisz, M., Antczak, A., Balcerek, M. K. Pielech-Przybylska, M., Sapinska, E. 2015. Conversion of sugar beet leaf polysaccharides into single cell protein. RSC Advances. 5(27): 20961–20965.

Petersen, L. A. H., Bequette, B. W., Sten, B. J., John, V., Christensen, I., Krist, V. G. 2020. Modeling and system identification of an unconventional bioreactor used for single cell protein production. Chemical Engineering Journal. 390: 124438.

Rasouli, Z., Valverde-Pereza, B., Martina, D., Franciscia, D. D., Irini, A., 2018. Nutrient recovery from industrial wastewater as single cell protein by a co-culture of green microalgae and methanotrophs. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 134(2010): 129–135.

Spalvins, K., Ivanovs, K., Blumberga, D. 2018. Single cell protein production from waste biomass: Review of various agricultural by-products. Agronomy Research. 16: 1493–1508.

Wardani, R. Y., Agustini, R. 2017. Pengaruh konsentrasi yeast hydrolysate enzimatic (YHE) sebagai suplemen media kultur untuk pertumbuhan Lactobacillus bulgaricus. UNESA Journal of Chemistry. 6(1): 25–31.

Zhou, Y. M., Chen, Y. P., Guo, J. S., Shen, Y., Peng, Y., Ji-Xiang, Y. 2019. Recycling of orange waste for single cell protein production and the synergistic and antagonistic effects on production quality. Journal of Cleaner Production. 213: 384–392.


  • There are currently no refbacks.