Reviana Inda Dwi Suyatmo, Hary Sulistyo, Wahyudi Budi Sediawan


The growing utilization of biodiesel as a renewable fuel has generated a large surplus of glycerol as a major byproduct. The prices of glycerol continue to drop in such an oversaturated market. Therefore, new uses are being developed for glycerol to produce value-added chemicals. Among those chemicals, glycerol carbonate has many application in various fields. Glycerol carbonate is mostly used as a solvent in cosmetic and pharmacheutical industries due to its low toxicity, high boiling point, and low vapor pressure. The synthesis of glycerol carbonate from glycerol and urea using Amberlyst15 as a catalyst was being conducted in this study. The reaction was carried out using a batch reactor for 5 hours with the condition of the reaction temperature was around 120oC, mole ratios of reactant of urea:glycerol were 0.8:1, 0.9:1, 1:1, and 1.2:1 , catalyst concentrations were 2%, 2,5%, 3%, and 4%, and mixing speeds were 370 rpm, 525 rpm, and 700 rpm. It is found that the optimum conversion of glycerol was obtained at 120oC with 5 hours of reaction using an equimolar amount of glycerol and urea with catalyst load of 3%. Mixing speed did not affect glycerol conversion. Amberlyst15 as catalyst was also stable enough to be reused at least for three times.


Amberlyst15; glycerol; glycerol carbonate; urea

Full Text:



Aresta, M., Dibenedetto, A., Nocito, F., Ferragina, C. 2009. Valorization of Bio-glycerol : New Catalytic Materials for The Synthesis of Glycerol Carbonate via Glycerolysis of Urea. Journal of Catalysis. 268: 106-114

Aresta, M., Dibenedetto, A., Nocito, F., Pastore, C. 2006. A study on The Carboxylation of Glycerol to Glycerol Carbonate with Carbondioxide: The Role of Catalyst, Solvent, and Reaction Conditions. Journal of Molecular Catalysis. 257: 149-153

Climment, M.J., Corma, A. 2010. Chemicals from Biomass : Synthesis of Glycerol Carbonate by Transesterification and Carbonylation with Urea with Hydrotalcite Catalyst. Journal of Catalysis. 269:140-149.

Fogler, H.S. 2006. Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering. Pearson-Education, Inc., Boston.

Hammond C., Lopez-Sanchez J.A., Ab Rahim M.H., Dimitratos N., Jenkins R.L., Carley A.F., He Q., Kiely C.J., Knight D.W., Hutchings G.J. 2011. Synthesis of glycerol carbonate from glycerol and urea with gold-based catalysts. Dalton Transaction Home. 40:3927-3937

Hansen, C.F., Hernandez, A., Mullan, B.P., Moore,K., Trezona-Murray,M., King, R.H., Pluske, J.R. 2009. A Chemical Analysis of Samples of Crude Glycerol from The Production of Biodiesel in Australia. Animal Production Science. 49: 154-161.

Huntsman Corporation. 2001. Jeffsol Alkylene Carbonates. accessed in 1 Maret 2015

Jagadeeswaraiah. 2014. Design of Solid Catalysts for The Selective Conversion of Glycerol. Tesis. CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology. India

Kim, D.W., Park, M.S., Selvaraj, M., Park, G.A., Lee, S.D., Park, D.W. 2011. Catalytic Performance of Polymer-Supported Ionic Liquids in The Synthesis of Glycerol Carbonate from Glycerol and Urea. Reserach on Chemical Intermediates. 37: 1305-1312.

Knothe G, Van Gerpen J, Krahl J. 2005. The Biodiesel Handbook. AOCS Press. Illinois.

Kumar,C., Jagadeeswaraiah, K., Prasad, P.S., Lingaiah, N. 2012. Samarium-exchanged Heteropoly Tungstate: An Efficient Solid Acid Catalyst for the Synthesis of Glycerol Carbonate from Glycerol and Benzylation of Anisole. ChemCatChem. 4:1360-1367

McKetta, J. J., Cunningham, W.A. 1984. Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design. 20:77. Marcel Decker. New York.

Nunes, A.V.M., Carrera, G. V. S. M., Najdanovic-Visak, V., Ponte, M. 2013. Solubility of CO2 in glycerol at high pressures. Fluid Phase Equilibria. 358:105-107

Ochoa-Go?mez, J.R., Olga Go?mez, Ramrez-Lo?pez, C., Belsue?, M. 2012. A Brief Review on Industrial Alternatives for the Manufacturing of Glycerol Carbonate : a Green Chemical. Organic Process Research & Development. 16:389?399.

Pagliaro,M., Rossi, M. 2008. The future of Glycerol : New Uses of a versatile raw material. RSC Publishing. 78-79

Rahim,M.H.A., He,Q., Lopez-Sanchez,J.A., Hammond,C., Dimitratos,N., Sankar,M., Carley,A.F., Kiely,C.J., Knight,D.W., Hutchings,G.J. 2012. Gold, palladium and goldpalladium supported nanoparticles for the synthesis of glycerol carbonate from glycerol and urea. Catalysis Science and Technology. 2:1914-1924.

Seemann, L., Kaszonyi, A. 2011. Study of Preparation of Glycerol Carbonate from Glycerol. 45th International Petroleum Conference. Bratislava.

Smith, J.M. 1981. Chemical Engineering Kinetics, 3rd ed. McGraw Hill, Inc. Japan.

Teles, J.,H., Rieber, N., Harder, W. 1994. Preparation of glyceryl carbonate. US Patent No : 5359094 A

Teo, H.T.R., Saha, B. 2004. Heterogeneous Catalysed Esterification of Acetic Acid with Isoamyl Alcohol. Journal of Catalysis. 228:174-182.

Vieville, C., Yoo, J.W., Pelet, S., Mouloungui, Z. 1998. Synthesis of glycerol carbonate by direct carbonatation of glycerol in supercritical CO2 in the presence of zeolites and ion exchange resins. Catalysis Letters. 56:245247.

Wang,L., Ma,Y., Wang,Y., Liu,S., Deng,Y. 2011. Efficient synthesis of glycerol carbonate from glycerol and urea with lanthanum oxide as a solid base catalyst. Catalysis Communications. 12:14581462.

Yadav, G.D., Chandan, P.A. 2014. A Green Process for Glycerol Valorization to Glycerol Carbonate over Heterogeneous Hydrotalcite Catalyst. Catalysis Today. 8891:7-13

Yang, F., Hanna, M.A., Sun, R. 2012. Value-added uses for crude glycerol - a byproduct of biodiesel production, Biotechnos Biofuels. 5:1-10

Yoo, J.W.,Mouloungui,Z., Gaset,A. 2001. Method for producing an epoxide, in particular of glycidol, and installation for implementation. US Patent No : 6316641 B1

Zhang, J., He, D. 2014. Lanthanum-Based Mixed Oxides for The Synthesis of Glycerol Carbonate from Glycerol and Urea. Reaction Kinetics, Mechanism and Catalysis. 113(2):375-392.


  • There are currently no refbacks.