Dyah H Wardhani, Esti Rahmawati, Ghozi Tsany Arifin, Heri Cahyono


Demineralization is required to reduce the ash content of gelatin. Previous studies have confirmed the high quality of gelatin was produced after demineralized using combination of NaCl and aqueous NaOH. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of NaCl on the properties of gelatin from Lizardfish (Saurida spp.) scales. The cleaned scales was demineralized using a mixture of NaOH 0.5% and NaCl (0- 0.8%), at various temperatures (45, 65, 86oC) and time (30, 60, 90 and 150 minutes). The obtained samples was determined by ash content, pH, the lightness and moisture content. Addition of NaCl reduced the ash, pH and moisture content but increased the whiteness. Gelatin physical properties increased inline with NaCl concentration. Extended demineralized period gave a positive effect on ash, pH and moisture content but opposite effect was observed in the lightness and physical properties. Extended demineralization periods in high temperature reduced gelatin quality. The highest gel strength was found at demineralization for 150 min at 65oC using a combination of NaOH 0.5% and NaCl 0.8%. At this condition, the gelatin has 10%, 1,7%, 248 bloom, and 7,1 cP of moisture content, ash, gel strength and viscosity, respectively, which fulfil SNI 06.3735.1995.


Demineralisasi, gelatin, ikan beloso, sisik ikan

Full Text:



Ahmad, M., Benjakul, S. 2011. Characteristics of gelatin from the skin of unicorn leatherjacket (Aluterus monoceros) as influenced by acid pretreatment and extraction time. Food Hydrocolloids. 25(3) : 381-388.

Akagndz, Y., Mosquera, M., Gimnez, B., Alemn, A., Montero, P., Gmez-Guilln, M.C. 2014. Sea bream bones and scales as a source of gelatin and ACE inhibitory peptides. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 55(2) : 579-585.

Alhana, A., Suptijah, P., Tarman, K. 2015. Extraction and characterization of collagen from sea cucumber flesh. Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indone-sia. 18(2).

Amiruldin, M. 2007. Preparation of gelation and characteristic determination of gelation from tuna fish (Thunnus albaca-res). [SKRIPSI] IPB , Bogor.

AOAC. 2005. Latimer JW, Horwitz W, editors. Official methods of analysis

Aquilina, A., Mller, D., Farrugia, C., Sinagra, E. 2004. The Effect of Sodium Chloride on Type-Based Differences in Gelatin Desolvation Behaviour. International Meeting on Pharmaceutics, Biopharma-ceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Nuremberg, Jerman. .mt/cfar2/Publications/Abstract11.pdf access on 5 September 2016

Ardekani, V.S., Mahmoodani, F., See, S.F., Yusop, S.M., Babji, A.S. 2013. Processing optimization and characterization of gelatin from catfish (Clarias gariepinus) skin. Sains Malaysiana. 42(12):1697-1705.

Badii, F., Howell, N.K. 2006. Fish gelatin: structure, gelling properties and interaction with egg albumen proteins. Food Hydrocolloids. 20(5) : 630-640.

Bower C.K., Avena-Bustillos R.J., Olsen C.W., Mchugh T.H., and Bechtel P.J. (2006), Characterization of fish-skin gelatin gels and films containing the antimicrobial enzyme lysozyme. J Food Sci. ;71:141145.

Chancharern, P., Laohakunjit, N., Kerdchoechuen, O., Thumthanaruk, B. 2016. Extraction of type A and type B gelatin from jellyfish (Lobonema smithii). International Food Research Journal. 23(1) : 419-424.

Chuaychan, S., Benjakul, S., Nuthong, P. 2016. Element distribution and morphology of spotted golden goatfish fish scales as affected by demineralisation. Food chemistry. 197 : 814-820.

Da Trindade Alfaro, A., Fonseca, G.G. and Prentice-Hernndez, C. 2013. Enhancement of functional properties of wami tilapia (Oreochromis urolepis hornorum) skin gelatin at different pH values. Food and Bioprocess Technology. 6(8) : 2118-2127.

Directorat General. 2013. Capture fisheries statistics of Indonesia 2007-2012. Ditjen Perikanan Tangkap. Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan Republik Indonesia

Du, L., Khiari, Z., Pietrasik, Z., Betti, M. 2013 Physicochemical and functional properties of gelatins extracted from turkey and chicken heads. Poultry Science. 92 : 2463-2474.

Gimnez, B., Turnay, J., Lizarbe, M.A., Montero, P., Gmez-Guilln, M.C. 2005. Use of lactic acid for extraction of fish skin gelatin. Food hydrocolloids. 19(6) : 941-950.

Gilsenan, P.M., Ross-Murphy, S.B. 2000. Viscoelasticity of thermoreversible gelatin gels from mammalian and piscine collagens. Journal of Rheology. 44(4) : 871-883.

GMIA, G.H. 2012. Gelatin Manufacturers Institute of America. New York.

Hanjabam, M.D., Kannaiyan, S.K., Kamei, G., Jakhar, J.K., Chouksey, M.K., Gudipati, V. 2015. Optimisation of gelatin extraction from Unicorn leatherjacket (Aluterus monoceros) skin waste: response surface approach. Journal of food science and technology. 52(2) : 976-983.

Haris, M. A. 2008. Uutilization of waste of fish bone of Nila (oreochromis niloticus) as gelatin and the effect of storage period at room temperature. [SKRIPSI] IPB , Bogor.

Harriyati, P. 2006. Analysis food safety policy of farming product at Pantura at Central Java and DIY [Dissertation] Universitas Diponegoro. Semarang.

Hasan. 2007. Study of extraction on gelation type B of cow skin. [SKRIPSI] . IPB. Bogor.

Jakhar, J.K., Pal, A.K., Reddy, D.A., Sahu, N.P., Venkateshwarlu, G., Vardia, H.K. 2012. Fatty acids composition of some selected Indian fishes. African Journal of Basic Applied Science. 4 : 155-160.

Jamilah, B., Tan, K.W., Hartina, M.U., Azizah, A. 2011. Gelatins from three cultured freshwater fish skins obtained by liming process. Food hydrocolloids. 25(5) : 1256-1260.

Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). 2003. Summary and conclusions of the sixty-first meeting on food additives. Rome. June 1019, 2003. Accessed February 23, 2014.

Jridi, M., Hajji, S., Ayed, H.B., Lassoued, I., Mbarek, A., Kammoun, M., Souissi, N., Nasri, M. 2014. Physical, structural, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of gelatinchitosan composite edible films. International journal of biological macromolecules. 67 : 373-379.

Karim, A.A., Bhat, R. 2009. Fish gelatin: properties, challenges, and prospects as an alternative to mammalian gelatins. Food hydrocolloids. 23(3):563-576.

Mariod, A.A., Fadul, H. 2013. Gelatin, source, extraction and industrial applica-tions. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria. 12(2):135-147.

Montero, P., Gmez?Guilln, M.C. 2000. Extracting conditions for megrim (Lepidorhombus boscii) skin collagen affect functional properties of the resulting gelatin. Journal of Food Sci-ence. 65(3):434-438.

Nhari, R.M.H.R., Ismail, A., Man, C., Yaakob, B. 2012. Analytical methods for gelatin differentiation from bovine and porcine origins and food products. Journal of food science. 77(1).

Rhim, J.W., Wu, Y., Weller, C.L., Schnepf, M. 1999. Physical characteristics of a composite film of soy protein isolate and propyleneglycol alginate. Journal of food science. 64(1):149-152.

Rosli, N., Sarbon, N.M. 2015. Physicochemical and structural properties of Asian Swamp Eel (Monopterus albus) skin gelatin as compared to bovine gelatin. International Food Research Journal. 22(2).

Sabbaghpour, S., Motamedzadegan, A. 2014. Investing the effects of preprocessing conditions on qualitative characteristics of skin gelatin of the Iranian Beluga. European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences. 3(3):758.

Sae-Leaw, T., Benjakul, S. 2015. Physico-chemical properties and fishy odour of gelatin from seabass (Lates calcarifer) skin stored in ice. Food Bioscience. 10:59-68.

Sanaei, A.V., Mahmoodani, F., See, S.F., Yusop, S.M., Babji, A.S. 2013. Optimization of gelatin extraction and physico-chemical properties of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) bone gelatin. International Food Research Journal. 20(1).

Sha, X.M., Tu, Z.C., Liu, W., Wang, H., Shi, Y., Huang, T., Man, Z.Z. 2014. Effect of ammonium sulfate fractional precipitation on gel strength and characteristics of gelatin from bighead carp (Hypophthal-michthys nobilis) scale. Food Hydro-colloids. 36:173-180.

Silva, R.S., Bandeira, S.F., Pinto, L.A. 2014. Characteristics and chemical composition of skins gelatin from cobia (Rachycentron canadum). LWT-Food Science and Technology. 57(2):580-585.

SNI. 063735. 1995. Standard and determination of gelation. Dewan Standarisasi Mutu Pangan Jakarta

Standard, B. 1975. 757. Methods for sampling and testing gelatine (Physical and Chemical Methods). 3rd ed. London: British Standards Institution.

Suryaningrum, T.D., Utomo, B.S.B. 2002. Guidelines of determination of seaweed and its derivative products. Jakarta: Pusat Riset Pengolahan Produk dan Sosial Ekonomi Perikanan dan Kelautan.

Taheri, A., Kenari, A.M.A., Gildberg, A., Behnam, S. 2009. Extraction and physicochemical characterization of greater lizardfish (Saurida tumbil) skin and bone gelatin. Journal of Food Science. 74 (3):160-165

Wangtueai, S., Noomhorm, A. 2009. Processing optimization and characterization of gelatin from lizardfish (Saurida spp.) scales. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 42(4):825-834.

Weng, W., Tang, L., Wang, B., Chen, J., Su, W., Osako, K., Tanaka, M. 2014. Antioxidant properties of fractions isolated from blue shark (Prionace glauca) skin gelatin hydrolysates. Journal of Functional Foods. 11:342-351.

Widyasari, R., Rawdkuen, S. 2014. Extraction and characterization of gelatin from chicken feet by acid and ultrasound assisted extraction. Food Applied Bioscience Journal. 2(2):83-95.

Wulandari, Supriadi, A., Purwanto, B. 2013. The Effect of Defatting and Extraction Temerature on the Physical Poperties of Snakehead Fish Bone Gelatin (Channa Striata). Fishtech journal. Indonesia. 2(1):38-45.

Zhang, H.Y., Tehrany, E.A., Kahn, C.J.F., Ponot, M., Linder, M., Cleymand, F. 2012. Effects of nanoliposomes based on soya, rapeseed and fish lecithins on chitosan thin films designed for tissue enginee-ring. Carbohydrate polymers. 88(2):618-627.


  • There are currently no refbacks.