PREPARATION OF SPENT BLEACHING EARTH-SUPPORTED CALCIUM FROM LIMESTONE AS CATALYST IN TRANSESTERIFICATION OF WASTE FRYING OIL

Noor Hindryawati, Daniel Daniel, Erwin Erwin, Gaanty Pragas Maniam

Abstract

An investigation was conducted on palm oil refinery waste-spent bleaching earth (POR-SBE), POR-SBE supported by calcium as catalysts for methyl esters production through transesterification process using waste frying oil. The catalysts showed longer lasting activity than the traditional alkali catalysts. The optimum conditions for the process were: Ca-POR-SBE catalyst amount 7 %; methanol to oil molar ratio 12:1; and a reaction duration is 4 h. The process was able to transesterify oil to methyl esters at 96.8 % conversion at 65 C. The catalysts were easily separated from the reaction mixture and the final product met selected biodiesel fuel properties in accordance with European Standard EN 14214.

Keywords

Transesterification, Heterogeneous base catalyst, Waste frying oil, Spent bleaching earth, Methyl ester

Full Text:

PDF

References

US Energy Information Administration (EIA). Annual Energy Outlook 2011 with Projections to 2035. (May 2016).

Abdullah, A.Z., Razali, N., Lee, K.T. 2009. Optimization of mesoporous K/SBA-15 catalyzed transesterification of palm oil using response surface methodology. Fuel Processing Technology. 90 : 958-964.

Agrawal, S., Singh, B., Sharma, Y.C. 2012. Exoskeleton of a Mollusk (Pila globosa) as a heterogeneous catalyst for synthesis of biodiesel using frying oil. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 51 : 11875-11880.

Alim, M.A., Lee, J.H., Akoh, C.C., Choi, M.S., Jeon, M.S., Shin, J.A., Lee, K.T. 2008. Enzymatic transesterification of fractionated rice bran oil with conjugated linoleic acid: Optimization by response surface methodology. LWT - Food Science and Technology. 41 : 764-770.

Boey, P.-L., Maniam, G.P., Hamid, S.A. 2009. Biodiesel production via transesterification of palm olein using waste mud crab (Scylla serrata) shell as a heterogeneous catalyst. Bioresources Technology. 100 : 6362-6368.

Boey, P.-L., Maniam, G.P., Hamid, S.A., Ali, D.M.H. 2011. Utilization of waste cockle shell (Anadara granosa) in biodiesel production from palm olein: Optimization using response surface methodology. Fuel. 90: 2353-2358.

EIA, 2014. Energy Information Administration. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report.

Lee, H.V., Yunus, R., Juan, J.C., Taufiq-Yap, Y.H. 2011. Process optimization design for jatropha-based biodiesel production using response surface methodology. Fuel Processing Technology. 92 : 2420-2428.

Liao, C.-C., Chung, T.-W. 2013. Optimization of process conditions using response surface methodology for the microwave-assisted transesterification of Jatropha oil with KOH impregnated CaO as catalyst. Chemical Engineering Research and Design. 91: 2457-2464.

Limmanee, S., Naree, T., Bunyakiat, K., Ngamcharussrivichai, C. 2013. Mixed oxides of Ca, Mg and Zn as heterogeneous base catalysts for the synthesis of palm kernel oil methyl esters. Chemical Engineering Journal. 225: 616-624.

Reyero, I., Arzamendi, G., Ganda, L.M. 2014. Heterogenization of the biodiesel synthesis catalysis: CaO and novel calcium compounds as transesterification catalysts. Chemical Engineering Research and Design. 92: 1519-1530.

Rodrigues, R.C., Ayub, M.A.Z. 2011. Effects of the combined use of Thermomyces lanuginosus and Rhizomucor miehei lipases for the transesterification and hydrolysis of soybean oil. Process Biochemistry. 46: 682-688.

Salamatinia, B., Mootabadi, H., Bhatia, S., Abdullah, A.Z. 2010. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted heterogeneous biodiesel production from palm oil: A response surface methodology approach. Fuel Processing Technology 91: 441-448.

Shieh, C.J., Liao, H.F., Lee, C.C. 2003. Optimization of lipase-catalyzed biodiesel by response surface methodology. Bioresources Technology. 88: 103-106.

Silva, G.F., Camargo, F.L., Ferreira, A.L.O. 2011. Application of response surface methodology for optimization of biodiesel production by transesterification of soybean oil with ethanol. Fuel Processing Technology. 92: 407-413.

Tang, S., Wang, L., Zhang, Y., Li, S., Tian, S., Wang, B. 2012. Study on preparation of Ca/Al/Fe3O4 magnetic composite solid catalyst and its application in biodiesel transesterification. Fuel Processing Technology. 95: 84-89.

Teo, S.H., Taufiq-Yap, Y.H., Ng, F.L. 2014. Alumina supported/unsupported mixed oxides of Ca and Mg as heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of Nannochloropsis sp. microalgas oil. Energy Conversion and Management. 88:1193-1199 .

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.