Dwi Ajias Pramasari, Liesbetini Haditjaroko, Titi Candra Sunarti, Euis Hermiati, Khaswar Syamsu


Sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) obtained after juice extraction is a potential feedstock for fermentable sugars production that can be further fermented to different kinds of products, such as ethanol or lactic acid. The proper particle size resulted from phsyical pretreatment and different pretreatment processes including water, alkali, hydrothermal, and alkali hydrothermal for improving enzyme susceptibility of SSB have been investigated. After grinding to particle sizes of <250 ?m, 250-420 ?m, and, > 420 ?m the sweet sorghum bagasse was washed to eliminate residual soluble sugars present in the bagasse. Dosages of cellulase enzyme used in saccharification were 60 and 100 FPU/g substrate, respectively. The results showed that SSB with particle sizes of 250-420 ?m had the highest cellulose (38.33%) and hemicellulose content (31.80%). Although the yield of reducing sugar of 250-420 ?m size particles was lower than that of smaller particle (<250 ?m), the former was more economical in the energy consumption for milling process. The yields of reducing sugar obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis of alkali hydrothermal pretreated sweet sorghum bagasse were 1.5 and 0.5 times higher than that from untreated sweet sorghum bagasse at enzyme loading of 100 and 60 FPU/g substrate, respectively. Furthermore, alkali hydrothermal pretreatment was able to remove as much as 85% of lignin. Morphological analysis using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) showed that samples treated with alkali hydrothermal have more pores and distorted bundles than that of untreated sweet sorghum bagasse. Meanwhile, XRD (X-ray diffraction) analysis showed that pretreated samples had a higher crystallinity and smaller crystallite size than untreated sweet sorghum bagasse, which might be due to removal of amorphous lignin components.


Bagas Sorgum Manis, Penerimaan Enzim, Praperlakuan Alkali Hidrotermal, Praperlakuan Fisik

Full Text:



Adney, B., Baker, J. 2008. Measurement of Cellulase Activities. Laboratory Analytical Protocol. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Golden. Colorado.

Almodares A., Jafarinia M., Hadi M.R. 2009. The Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Chemical Compositions in Corn and Sweet Sorghum. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences. 6:441446.

[AOAC] Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 2005. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analitycal Chemist. Association of Official Analytical Chemsits, Inc. Arlington. Virginia.

Banerji, A., Balakrishnan, M., Kishore, V.V.N. 2013. Low Severity Dilute-Acid Hydrolysis of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse. Applied Energy. 104:197-206.

Cao, W., Chen, S., Ronghou, L., Renzhan, Y., Xiaowu, W. 2012. Comparison of Effects of Five Pretreatment Methods on Enhancing The Enzymatic Digestibility and Ethanol Production from Sweet Sorghum Bagasse. Bioresource Technology. 111:215-221.

Cadoche, L., Lopez, G.D. 1989. Assessment of Size Reduction as A Preliminary Step in The Production of Ethanol From Lignocellulosic Wastes. Biological Wastes. 30:153-157.

Chen, H., Yejun, H., Jian, X. 2008. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Steam Exploded Wheat Straw Pretreated with Alkaline Peroxide. Process Biochemistry. 43:1462-1466.

Chen, C. 2011. Alternative Pretreatment of Sorghum Bagasse for Bio-Ethanol Production. Master Thesis. The Louisiana State University. Louisiana. USA.

Choudhary, R., Arosha, L.U., Yanna, L., Thara, S., John, H., Gediminas, M. 2012. Microwave Pretreatment for Enzymatic Saccharification of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse. Biomass and Bioenergy. 39:218-226.

Gao, Y., Jingliang, X., Yu, Z., Qiang, Y., Zhenhong, Y., Yunyun, L. 2013. Effects of Different Pretreatment Methods on Chemical Composition of Sugarcane Bagasse and Enzymatic Hydrolysis. Bioresource Technology. 144:396-400.

Ghose, T.K. 1987. Measurement of Cellulase Activities. Pure and Applied Chemistry. 59:257-268.

Gnansounou, E., Dauriat, Wyman. 2005. Refining Sweet Sorghum to Ethanol and Sugar: Economic Trade-Offs in The Context of North China. Bioresource Technology. 96:985-1002.

Fatriasari, W. 2014. Produksi Gula Pereduksi melalui Rekayasa Proses Pra-Perlakuan Bambu Betung (Dendrocalamus asper (Schult.f)). Disertasi. Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor. Indonesia.

Fatriasari, W., Syafii, W., Wistara, N.J., Syamsu, K. 2014. The Characteristic Changes of Betung Bamboo (Dendrocalamus Asper) Pretreated by Fungal Pretreatment. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development. 3:133143.

Focher, B., Palma, M.T, Canetti, M., Torri, G., Cosentino, C., Gastaldi, G. 2001. Structural Differences Between Non-Wood Plant Celluloses : Evidence from Solid State NMR, Vibrational Spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffractometry. Industrial Crops and Products. 13:193-208.

Hendriks, A.T.W.M., Zeeman, G. 2009. Pretreatments to Enhance The Digestibility of Lignocellulosic Biomass. Bioresource Technology. 100:1018.

Khullar, E., Dien, B.S., Rausch, K.D, Tumbleson, M.E., Singh, V. 2013. Effect of Particle Size on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Pretreated Miscanthus. Industrial Crops and Products. 44:1117.

Kim, D.S., Myint, A.A., Lee, H.W., Yoon, J., Lee, Y.W. 2013. Evaluation of Hot Compressed Water Pretreatment and Enzymatic Saccharification of Tulip Tree Sawdust Using Severity Factors. Bioresource Technology. 144:460466.

Kim, J.S., Lee, Y.Y., Kim, T.H. 2016. A Review on Alkaline Pretreatment Technology for Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass. Bioresource Technology. 199:4248.

Klinke, H.B., Birgitte, K.A., Anette, S.S., Anne, B.T. 2002. Characterization of Degradation Products from Alkaline Wet Oxidation of Wheat Straw. Bioresource Technology. 82:15-26.

Kumar, P., Barrett D.M., Delwiche M.J., Stroeve P. 2009. Methods for Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Efficient Hydrolysis and Biofuel Production. Industrial & Enginerring Chemistry Research.

Lamsal, B.P., Madl, R. 2011. Comparison of Feedstock Pretreatment Performance and Its Effect on Soluble Sugar Availability. Bioenergy Research. 4: 193200.

Liyakathali, N.A.M. 2014. Ultrasonic Pretreatment of Energy Cane Bagasse for Biofuel Production. Master Thesis. The Louisiana State University. Louisiana. USA.

Liu, J.G., Wang, Q.H., Wang, D.X.S., Zou, D., Sonomoto, K. 2012. Utilization of Microwave-Naoh Pretreatment Technology to Improve Performance and L-Lactic Acid Yield from Vinasse. Biosystem Engineering. 112:6-13.

Long, S.S., Jia, L.W., Ming, G.M., Xian, L.S., Run, C.S. 2014. Integrated Biorefinery Based on Hydrothermal and Alkaline Treatments: Investagation of Sorghum Hemicelluloses. Carbohydrate Polymers. 663-669.

Luo X, Zhu JY. 2011. Effects of drying-induced fiber hornification on enzymatic saccharification of lignocelluloses. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 48:92-99.

Matsakas, L., Christakopoulos, P. 2013. Fermentation of Liquefacted Hydrothermally Pretreated Sweet Sorghum Bagasse to Ethanol at High-Solids Content. Bioresource Technology. 127:202208.

Mutepe, R.D. 2012. Ethanol Production from Sweet Sorghum. Disertation. North-West University. USA.

Miller, S.R. 1959. Germination Variation and Tolerances. Proceedings of The Association of Official Seed Analysis. 51:86-91.

Pabendon, M.B., Rosalia, S.S., Masud. 2012. Pemanfaatan Nira Batang, Bagas, dan Biji Sorgum Manis sebagai Bahan Baku Bioetanol. Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan. 31(3):180-187.

Rohowsky, B., Thomas, H., Arne, G., Edgar, R., Doris, S., Martin, F. 2013. Feasibility of Simultaneous Saccharification and Juice Co-Fermentation on Hydrothermal Pretreated Sweet Sorghum Bagasse for Ethanol Production. Applied Energy.102:211-219.

Rowell, R.M. 2005. Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood. CRC Press. Florida.

Selig, M., Weiss, Ji. 2008. Enzymatic Saccharification of Lignocellulosic Biomass. NREL Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP). TP-510-42629.

Sluiter, A., Hames, B., Ruiz, R., Scarlata, C., Sluiter, J., Templeton, D., Crocker, D. 2011. Determination of Structural Carbohydrates and Lignin in Biomass. NREL Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP). TP-510-42618.

Sun, Y., Cheng, J. 2002. Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Materials for Ethanol Production : A Review. Bioresource Technology. 83 : 1-11.

[TAPPI] Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry. 1996. TAPPI Test Method. TAPPI Press. Atlanta.

Toquero, C., Bolado, S. 2014. Effect of Four Pretreatments on Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Ethanol Fermentation of Wheat Straw. Influence of Inhibitors and Washing. Bioresource Technology. 157:6876.

Umagiliyage, A.L., Choudhary, R., Liang, Y., Haddock, J., Watson, D.G. 2015. Laboratory Scale Optimization of Alkali Pretreatment for Improving Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse. Industrial Crops and Products. 74:977986.

Wang, W., Xinshu, Z., Zhenhong, Y., Qiang, Y., Wei, Q., Qiong, W., Xuesong, T. 2012. High Consistency Enzymatic Saccharification of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse Pretreated with Liquid Hot Water. Bioresource Technology. 108:252-257.

Wise, L., Murphy, E., D'Addieco, A.A. 1946. Chlorite Holocellulose, Its Fractionation and Bearing on Summative Wood Analysis and Studies on The Hemicelluloses. Paper Trade J. 122:11-19.

Wu, L., Mitsuhiro, A., Masakazu, I., Masahisa, W., Tomoyuki, T., Mitsuru, G., Tokuyasu, K. 2011. Low Temperature Alkali Pretreatment for Improving Enzymatic Digestibility of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse for Ethanol Production. Bioresource Technology. 102:4793-4799.

Yeh, A.I., Huang, Y.C., Chen, S.H. 2010. Effect of Particle Size on The Rate of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose. Carbohydrate Polymers. 79:192199.

Yu, Q., Xinshu, Z., Qiong, W., We,i Q., Xuesong, T., Zhenhong, Y. 2012. Hydrolysis of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse and Eucalyptus Wood Chips with Liquid Hot Water. Bioresource Technology. 116:220-225.

Zhang, J., Xingxing, M., Jianliang, Y., Xu, Z., Tianwei, T. 2011. The Effects of Four Different Pretreatments on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse [Short Communication]. Bioresource Technology. 102: 4585-4589.

Zhu, J.Y., Wang, G.S., Pan, X.J., Gleisner, R. 2009. Specific Surface to Evaluate The Efficiencies of Milling and Pretreatment of Wood for Enzymatic Saccharification. Chemical Engineering Science. 64 : 474-485.


  • There are currently no refbacks.