Between Self Congruity, Destination Relationship and Memorable Tourist Experience: An Empiric Study on the Loyalty of Tourist Destination

Elia Ardyan, Utomo Wibisono


This study examines the driving factors that can enhance tourist destination loyalty. Respondents used were 184 domestic tourists who had traveled to Bali. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. Amos version 21 is used to process data. These results indicate that destination personality can improve the relationship destination but memorable tourist experience can not enhance it. The personality of a tourist destination enhance self-congruity. The study also found that memorable tourist experiences and the relationship destinations has a positive impact on increasing destinations loyalty. Self-congruity has a negative effect on destination loyalty. One contribution of this research related to showing the memorable tourist experience is more likely to influence loyal decisions than destination relationships.


memorable tourist destination; destination personality; self congruity; destination relationship; and destination loyalty

Full Text:



Aaker, D. (1996). Building Strong Brands. New York: The Free Press.

Aaker, J. L. (1997). Dimensions of Brand Personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 34(3), 347-356.

Agapito, D., Mendes, J., & Valle, P. (2013). Exploring the Conceptualization of The Sensory Dimension of Tourist Experiences. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 2, 62-73.

Ahn, T., Ekinci, Y., & Li, G. (2013). Self-Congruence, Functional Congruence, and Destination Choice. Journal of Business Research, 66, 719-723.

Alegre, J., & Juaneda, C. (2006). Destination Loyalty: Consumers' Economic Behavior. Annals of Tourism Research, 33(3), 684-706.

Avis, M., & Aitken, R. (2015). Intertwined: Brand Personification, Brand Personality and Brand Relationships in Historical Perspective. Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, 7(2), 208-231.

Batra, R., Ahuvia, A., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2012). Brand Love. Journal of Marketing, 76, 1-16.

Beerli, A., Meneses, G. D., & Gil, S. M. (2007). Self-Congruity and Destination Choice. Annals of Tourism Research, 34(3), 571-587.

Berry, L. L., & Carbon, L. P. (2007). Building Loyalty Through Experience Management. Quality Progress, 40(9), 26-32.

Berry, L. L., Carbon, L. P., & Haeckel, S. H. (2002). Managing the Total Customer Experience. MIT Sloan Management Review(Spring), 85-89.

Biedenbach, G., & Marrel, A. (2010). The Impact of Customer Experience on Brand Equity In A Business to Business SErvice Setting. Journal of Brand Management, 17(6), 446-458.

Blackston, M. (1993). Beyond Brand Personality: Building Brand Equityâ€. In D. Aaker (Ed.), Brand Equity and Advertising. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlabaum Associates.

Blackwell, R., D’Zouza, C., Taghian, M., Miniard, P., & Engel, J. (2006). Consumer Behavior: An Asia Pacific Approach. Sydney: Nelson Australia Pty Limited.

Bloemer, J., & de Ruyter, K. (1999). Customer Loyalty in High and Low Involvement in High and Low Involvement Service Setting: The Moderating Impact of Positive Emotions. Journal of Marketing Management, 15, 315-330.

Boksberger, P., Dolnicar, S., Laesser, C., & Randle, M. (2011). Self-congruity theory: To what extent does it hold in tourism. Journal of Travel Research, 50(4), 454-464.

Brakus, J. J., Schmitt, B. H., & Zarantonello, L. (2009). Brand Experience: What is It? How Is It Measured? Does It Affect Loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 73, 52-68.

Burdenski, T. (2000). Evaluating Univariate, Bivariate, and Multivariate Normality Using Graphical and Statistical Procedures. Multiple Linear Regression Viewpoints, 26(2), 15-25.

Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS. New York: Routledge.

Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., & Guido, G. (2001). Brand Personality: How to Make the Metaphor Fit? Journal of Economic Psychology, 22, 377-395.

Chen, C.-F., & Phou, S. (2013). A Closer Look at Destination: Image, Personality, Relationship, and Loyalty. Tourism Management, 36, 269-278.

Chi, C. G.-Q., & Qu, H. (2008). Examining The Structural Relationships of Destination Image, Tourist Satisfaction, and Destination Loyalty: An Integrated Approach. Tourism Management, 29, 624-636.

Chon, K.-S. (1992a). Self Image/Destination Image Congruity. Annals of Tourism Research, 19(2), 360-363.

Chon, K. S. (1992b). Self-image/destination image congruity. Annals of Tourism Research, 19, 360-363.

Cohen, E. (1979). A Phenomenology Tourism Experience. Sociology, 13, 179-201.

Dall'Olmo Riley, F., & de Chernatony, L. (2000). The service brand as a relationship builder. British Journal of Management, 11, 137-150.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.

Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and Their Brands: Developing Relationship Theory in Consumer Research. Journal of Consumer Research, 24(March), 343-373.

Ghozali, I. (2013). Model Persamaan Struktural: Konsep dan Aplikasi Dengan Program AMOS 21. Semarang: Universitas Diponegoro.

Griffin, J. (2005). Customer Loyalty: Menumbuhkan dan Mempertahankan Kesetiaan Pelanggan. Jakarta: Penerbit Erlangga.

Ha, S., & Im, H. (2012). Identifying the Role of Self-Congruence on Shopping Behavior in the Context of U.S. Shopping Malls. Cloting and Textiles Research Journal, 30(2), 87-101.

Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis (5th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7 ed.). New York: A Global Perspective.

Han, H., & Back, K.-J. (2008). Relationships Among Image Congruencem Consumption Emotions, and Customer Loyalty in The Lodging Industry. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 32(4), 467-490.

Hanby, T. (1999). Brands: dead or alive? Journal of the Market Research Society, 14(5), 649-656.

Health, A. P., & Scott, D. (1998). The Self-Concept and Image Congruence Hypothesis: An Empirical Investigation in the Motor Vehicle Market. European Journal of Marketing, 32(11/12), 1110-1123.

Holbrook, M. B., & Hirschman, E. C. (1982). The Experiential Aspects of Consumption: Consumer Fantasies, feeling, and Fun. Journal of Consumer Research, 9(2), 132-140.

Hollebeek, L. D. (2011). Demystifying customer brand engagement: exploring the loyalty nexus. Journal of Marketing Management, 27(7/8), 785-807.

Hosany, S., Elkinci, Y., & Uysal, M. (2006). Destination Image and Destination Personality: An Application of Branding Theories to Tourism Place. Journal of Business Research, 59, 638-642.

Hosany, S., & Martin, D. (2012). Self-Image Congruence in Consumer Behavior. Journal of Business Research, 65, 685-691.

Hulland, J. (1999). Use of Partial Least Squares (PLS) on Strategic ManagementResearch: A Review Of Four Recent Studies. Strategic Management Journal, 20, 195-204.

Ismail, A. R., Melewar, T. C., Lim, L., & Woodside, A. (2011). Customer Experiences With Brands: Literature Review and Research Directions. Marketing Review, 11(3), 205-225.

Johar, J. S., & Sirgy, M. J. (1989). Positioning models in marketing: toward a normative-integrated model. Journal of Business & Psychology, 3, 437-485.

Johnson, N., & Wichern, D. (1992). Applied Multivariate Stratistical Analysis (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs: NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Kang, J., Tang, L., & Lee, J. Y. (2015). Self Congruity and Functional Congruity in Brand Loyalty. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 39(1), 105-131.

Kastenholz, E. (2004). Asses sment and role of destination-sel f-congruity. Annual Tourism Research, 31(3), 719-723.

Klipfel, J. A., Barclay, A. C., & Borckorny, K. M. (2014). Self-Congruity: A Determinant of Brand Personality. Journal of MArketing Development and Competitiveness, 8(3), 130-143.

Kressmann, F., Sirgy, M. J., Herrmann, A., Huber, F., Huber, S., & Lee, D.-J. (2006). Direct and Indirect Effects of Self-Image Congruence On Brand Loyalty. Journal of Business Research, 59, 955-964.

Kumar, R., Luthra, A., & Datta, G. (2006). Linkages between brand personality and brand loyalty: a qualitative study in an emerging market in the Indian context. South Asian Journal of Management, 13(2), 11-35.

Kwak, D. H., & Kang, J.-H. (2009). Symbolic purchase in sport: the roles of self-image congruence and perceived quality. Management Decision, 47(1), 85-99.

Lee, T. H., & Shen, Y. L. (2013). The influence of leisure involvement and place attachment on destination loyalty: Evidence from recreationists walking their dogs in urban parks. Journal of Environment Psychology, 33, 76-85.

Litvin, S., & Goh, H. (2002). Self-image congruence: a valid tourism theory? Tourism Management, 23, 81-83.

Litvin, S. W., & Kar, G. H. (2003). Individualism/collectivism as a moderating factor to the self-image congruity concept. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 10(1), 23-42.

Liu, C.-R., Lin, W.-R., & Wang, Y.-C. (2012). Relationship Between Self-Congruity and Destination Loyalty: Differences Between First-time and Repeat Visitors. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 1, 118-123.

Liu, F., Li, J., Mizarski, D., & Soh, H. (2012). Self-congruity, brand attitude, and brand loyalty: a study on luxury brands. European Journal of Marketing, 46(7/8), 922-937.

Looney, S. W. (1995). How to use tests for univariate normality to assess multivariate normality. The American Statistician, 49(1), 64-70.

Loureiro, S. M. C. (2014). The Role of Rural Tourism Experience Economy in Place Attachment and Behavioral Intentions. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 40, 1-9.

Meleddu, M., Paci, R., & Pulina, M. (2015). Repeat Behavior and Destination Loyalty. Tourism Management, 50, 159-171.

Morgan, N. A., & Pritchard, A. (2010). Meeting the destination branding challenge. In N. A. Morgan, A. Pritchard & R. Pride (Eds.), Destination branding: Creating the unique destination proposition (pp. 59-77). Butterworth-Heinemann: Oxford.

Murphy, L., Moscardo, G., & Benckendorff, P. (2007). Using brand personality to differentiate regional tourism destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 41, 5-14.

Oliver, R., & Rust, R. (1997). Customer Delight: Foundation, Finding, and Managerial Insight. Journal of Retailing, 73(3), 311-337.

Park, C. W., Jaworski, B. J., & Maclnis, D. J. (1986). Strategic Brand Concept-Image Management. Journal of Marketing, 50(4), 135–145.

Park, H. H., & Jung, G. O. (2010). A study on the impact of the congruence of store personality and self-image toward relationship strength and store loyalty. Journal of Marketing Studies, 16, 45-68.

Pawle, J., & Cooper, P. (2006). Measuring emotion-lovemarks, the future beyond brands. Journal of Advertising, 46(1), 38-48.

Pearce, D. G., & Schanzel, H. A. (2013). Destination Management: The Tourists' Perspective. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 2, 137-145.

Pine, B. J., & Gilmore, J. H. (1998). Welcome to The Experience Economy. Havard Business Review(July-August), 97-105.

Pizam, A. (2010). Creating Memorable Experiences. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29, 343.

Plummer, J. T. (1985). How Personality Make a Difference? Journal of Advertising Research, 24(6), 27-31.

Plummer, J. T. (2000). How Personality Makes a Difference. Journal of Advertising Research, 40(06), 79-84.

Ponsonby-Mccabe, S., & Boyle, E. (2006). Understanding Brands as Experiential Spaces: Axiological Implications for Marketing Strategists. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 14(2), 175-189.

Prahalad, C. K., & Ramaswamy, V. (2004). Co-creation experiences: The next practice in value creation. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18(3), 5-14.

Pullman, M. E., & Gross, M. A. (2004). Ability of Experience Design Element to Elicit Emotin and Loyalty Behaviors. Decision Sciences, 35(3), 551-578.

Rageh, A., Melewar, T. C., & Woodside, A. (2013). Using Netnography Research Method to Reveal The Underlying Dimentions of the Customer/Tourist Experience. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 16(2), 126-149.

Sahin, A., Zehir, C., & Kitapci, H. (2011). The Effects of Brand Experiences, Trust and Satisfaction on Building Brand Loyalty; An Empirical Research On Global Brands. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 24, 1288-1301.

Sathish, A. S., & Venkatesakumar, R. (2011). Coffe Experience and Driver of Satisfaction, Loyalty in a Coffe Outlet With Special Reference to Cafe Coffe Day. Journal of Temporary Management Research, 5(2), 1-13.

Schenk, M. J., & Holman, R. H. (1980). A sociological approach to brand choice: The concept of situation self-image. Advances in Consumer Research, 7, 610-614.

Schmitt, B. H. (1999a). Experiential Marketing. Journal of Marketing Management, 15, 53-67.

Schmitt, B. H. (1999b). Experiential Marketing: How to Get Customers to Sense, Feel, Think, Act, and Relate to Your Company and Brand. New York: The Free Press.

Shaw, C., & Ivens, J. (2002). Building Great Customer Experiences. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Sirgy, M. J. (1985). Using self-congruity and ideal congruity to predict purchase motivation. Journal of Business Research, 13, 195-206.

Sirgy, M. J., & Su, C. (2000). Destination image, self-congruity, and travel behavior: Toward an integrative model. Journal of Travel Research, 38(4), 340-352.

Sthapit, E. (2013). Tourists' Perception of Memorable Experience: Testing The Memorable Experience Scale (MTEs) Among Tourists to Rovaniemi, Lapland. Lapland.

Sun, X., Chi, C. G.-Q., & Xu, H. (2013). Developing Destination Loyalty: The Case of Hainan Island. Annals of Tourism Research, 43, 547-577.

Swann, W. B., Stein-Setoussi, A., & Giesler, R. B. (1992). Why People Self-Verify. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62(3), 392-401.

Tung, V. W. S., & Ritchie, J. R. B. (2011). Exploring The Essense of Memorable Tourism Experiences. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(4), 1367-1386.

Usakli, A., & Baloglu, S. (2011). Brand Personality of Tourist Destination: An Application of Self-Congruity Theory. Tourism Management, 32, 114-127.

Vandenbosch, M., & Dawar, N. (2002). Beyond Better Products: Capturing Value in Customer Interaction. MIT Sloan Management Review, 43(4), 35-42.

Veasna, S., Wu, W.-Y., & Huang, C.-H. (2013). The impact of destination source credibility on destination satisfaction: The mediating effects of destination attachment and destination image. Tourism Management, 36, 511-526.

Veloutsou, C. (2015). Brand evaluation, satisfaction and trust as predictors of brand loyalty: the mediator-moderator effect of brand relationships. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 32(6), 405-421.

Walls, A. R., Okumus, F., Wang, Y.-C., & Kwun, D. J.-W. (2011). Understanding The Customer Experience : An Exploratory Study of Luxury Hotels. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 20(2), 166-197.

Wang, N. (2002). The Tourist as Peak Consumer. In G. M. S. Dann (Ed.), The Tourist as A Metaphor of The Social World. Wallingford, Oxon: CABI Publishing.

White, C. J. (2006). Towards an Understanding of the relationship Between Mood, Emotions, Service Quality and Customer Loyalty Intention. The Service of Industrial Journal, 26(8), 837-847.

William, A. (2006). Tourism and Hospitality Marketing: Fantasy, Felling and Fun. international Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 18(6), 482-495.

Yuksel, A., Yuksel, F., & Bilim, Y. (2010). Destination attachment: effects on customer satisfaction and cognitive, affective and conative loyalty. Tourism Management, 31, 274-284.

View Counter: Abstract - 1251 and PDF - 1191


  • There are currently no refbacks.