Impact of Community Forestry Policy on Farmers in Rinjani Protected Forest Area

Ryke Nandini, Ambar Kusumandari, Totok Gunawan, Ronggo Sadono

Abstract


The aim of this research is to know: (1) the economic conditions of the community forestry (HKm) farmersseen from the income and the poverty level; (2) the social conditions of the HKm farmersseen from the education level and the behavior changes; and (3) the change of social economic conditions of the HKm farmers in 2008-2015. This researchis conducted from April to July in 2015 and located in four HKm groups of Rinjani protected forest area (RTK I). The data collection is conducted by the interviews with questionnaireto 102 HKm farmers using the Slovins formula with 10% of significant degree.This is implemented in descriptive analysis. The research result shows that: (1) the average income of the HKm farmers is Rp1,739,677 per month/ha and 59.8% of farmers are above the poverty line; (2) the farmers are increasingly aware of education (there are only 5.9% members of farmers family who are uneducated) and the lack offirewood utilization (there are only 23.5% farmers who are still using the firewood); and (3) in the period of 2008 to 2015 the average income of the farmers per month increases at 52,03%; the poverty level decreases at 46.5%, and there is a behavior change in whichthe dependence on the forest resources in the form of firewood decreases

Keywords


ommunity forestry, income, poverty, behavior change

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ancok, D. (2003). Modal Sosial dan Kualitas Masya-rakat. Pidato Pengukuhan Jabatan Guru Besar pada Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta.

Andayani, W. (2006). Modul Analisis Usaha Tani Pola Hutan Rakyat. Yogyakarta: Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Ashton, M., I. Gunatilleke, C. Gunatilleke, K. Tennakoon, and P. Ashton (2014). Use and cultivation of plants that yield products other than timber from South Asian tropical forests, and their potential in forest restoration. Forest Ecology and Management 329, 360-374.

Awang, S.A. (2003). Politik Kehutanan Masyarakat. Yogyakarta: Centre for Critical Social Studies bekerja sama dengan Kreasi Wacana.

Badan Pusat Statistik. (2015). Kemiskinan. htttp://www. bps.go.id. Diunduh 12 Nopember 2015.

BPK Mataram. (2008). Kajian Teknis Pengelolaan Hutan Kemasyarakatan di NTB: Studi kasus HKm di Pulau Lombok. Mataram: Balai Penelitian Kehutanan Mataram.

Budidarsono, S., dan K. Wijaya. (2004). Praktek Konservasi Dalam Budidaya Kopi Robusta dan Keuntungan Petani. Agrivita 26 (1), 107-117.

Budiman, A. (1995). Teori Pembangunan Dunia Ketiga. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Cochran, C. E., L.C. Mayer, T. Carr, and N.J. Cayer. (2009). American Public Policy: An Introduction. USA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Dmurger, S. and M. Fournier. (2011). Poverty and firewood consumption: A Case Study of Rural Households in Northern China. China Economic Review 22, 512-523.

Dhruba Bijaya, G., C. Sheng-Kui, G. Qijie, X. Zengrang, W. Ling-en, J. Bhandari, L. Xiaojie, G. Liwei, and C. Xiaochang (2015). Can Community Forestry Play a Major Role in The Socio-economic Enhancement of Poor Users in Nepal? Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 21 (No 2), 378383.

Dinas Kehutanan Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Barat. (2007). Pembentukan KPH di Provinsi NTB. Mataram: Dinas Kehutanan Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Barat.

Dipokusumo, B., H. Kartodihardjo, D. Darusman, dan A.H. Dharmawan. (2011). Kajian Dinamika Kebijakan Hutan Kemasyarakatan dan Alternatif Penyelesaian Konflik Kepentingan pada Kawasan Hutan Lindung di Pulau Lombok. Agroteksos Vol.21 No.2-3 , 165-176.

Febryano, I.G. (2008). Analisis Finansial Agroforestri Kakao di Lahan Hutan Negara dan Lahan Milik. Jurnal Perennial, 4 (1), 41-47.

Garb, Y., M. Manon, and D. Peters. (2007). Environ-mental Impact Assessment: Between Bureaucratic Process and Social Learning. In F. Fischer, G. J. Miller, and M.S. Sidney (eds), Hand Book of Public Analysis: Theory, Politics, and Methods (pp. 481-491). Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Gutomo, B.A., R. Yulianti, J. Suryanto, A.D. Ekaputra, T. Saptono, dan H. Muis. (2015). Sumbangan Hutan Kemasyarakatan dan Hutan Desa Terhadap Pendapatan dan Pengurangan Kemiskinan. Jakarta: The Partnership for Governance Reform, Kerjasama LIPI dan Kemitraan.

Hairiah, K., H. Sulistyani, D. Suprayoga, Widianto, P. Purnomosidhi, dan R.H. Widodo. (2006). Litter layer residence time in forest and Coffee Agro-forestry Systems in Sumberjaya, West Lampung. Forest Ecology and Management 224, 45-57.

Hogarth, N. J., B. Belcher, B. Campbell, and N. Stacey. (2013). The Role of Forest-Related Income in Household Economies and Rural Livelihoods in the Border-Region of Southern China. World Develop-ment Vol. 43, 111123.

Khanal, B. (2011). Is Community Forestry Decreasing Inequality Among its Users? Study of Impact of Community Forestry on income distribution among different users groups in Nepal. International Journal of Social Forestry (IJSF), 4 (2), 139-152.

Koentjaraningrat. (2003). Cetakan Kedua. Pengantar Antropologi Jilid I. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

Magdalena. (2013). Peran Hukum Adat dalam Pengelo-laan dan Perlindungan Hutan di Desa Sesaot, Nusa Tenggara Barat dan Desa Setulang, Kalimantan Timur. Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan Vol. 10 No. 2, 110-121.

McIntosh, P.C., S. Asseng, and E. Wang. (2015). Profit and Disk in Dryland Cropping: Seasonal Forecasts and Fertiliser Management. Building Productive, Diverse and Sustainable Landscapes; Proceedings of the 17th ASA Conference, 2024 September 2015. Hobart, Australia: www.agronomy2015.com.au.

Mukhtar, Sumarno, dan K. Hidayat. (2010). Penge-lolaan Program Hutan Kemasyarakatan Berbasis Kearifan Lokal : Studi Kasus Di Kawasan Hutan Lindung Sesaot Lombok Barat. Wacana Vol.13, 132-151.

Mutaqin, Z. (2013). Analisis Kelembagaan Kelompok Hutan Kemasyarakatan (HKm) di Hulu DAS Sekampung (Studi Kasus pada Gapoktan Hijau Makmur). Jurnal Ilmiah ESAI Volume 7, No.2 , 1-8.

Nandini, R. (2013). Evaluasi Pengelolaan Hutan Kemasyarakatan (HKm) pada Hutan Produksi dan Hutan Lindung di Pulau Lombok. Jurnal Penelitian Hutan Tanaman Vol.10, No.1 , 43-55.

Nurrohmat, D.R. (2000). Analyses of socio-economic and product's marketing of Social Forestry participants in KPH Surakarta. Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika Vol. 6 No. 1 , 51-59.

Ogburn, W. F. (1922). Social Change. New York: Heubsch.

Premono, B. dan S. Lestari. (2013). Analisis Finansial Agroforestri Kayu Bawang (Dysoxilum mollis-simum Blume) dan Kebutuhan Lahan Minimum di Provinsi Bengkulu. Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan Vol.10, No.4, Desember 2013, 211-223.

Preety, J. (1995). Participatory Learning for Sustainable Agriculture. World Development Vol. 23 No.8, 1247-1263.

Purwita, T., Harianto, B.M. Sinaga, dan H. Kartodihardjo. (2009). Analisis Keragaan Ekonomi Rumah Tangga: Studi Kasus Pengelolaan Hutan Bersama Masyarakat di Pengalengan Bandung Selatan. Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan Vol. 6 No. 1, 53-68.

Rahut, D. B., A. Ali, and B. Behera. (2015). Household Participation and Effects of Community Forest Management on Income and Poverty Levels: Empirical evidence from Bhutan. Forest Policy and Economics 61 , 2029.

Rajati, T., C. Kusmana, D. Darusman, dan A. Saefuddin. (2006). Optimalisasi Pemanfaatan Lahan Kehutanan dalam Rangka Peningkatan Kualitas Lingkungan dan Kesejahteraan Sosial Ekonomi Masyarakat Desa Sekitar Hutan : Studi Kasus di Kabupaten Sumedang. Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika Vol.XII, No.1 , 38-50.

Ritonga, W.M., dan E. Rochana. (2013). Keberhasilan Program Hutan Kemasyarakatan dalam Meles-tarikan Hutan. Jurnal Sociologie, Vol. 1, No. 2, 132-137.

Roshetko, J., dan Mulawarman. (2002). Wanatani di Nusa Tenggara: Ringkasan Hasil Lokakarya. Prosiding Lokakarya Wanatani se-Nusa Tenggara (pp. 1-17). Denpasar, Bali: International Center for Research in Agroforestry and Winrock International.

Salman, D. 2005. Pembangunan Partisipatoris. Modul Konsentrasi Manajemen Perencanaan. Program Studi Manajemen Pembangunan. Universitas Hasanuddin. Makassar.

Sapkota, I.P. and P.C. Odn. (2008). Household characteristics and dependency on community forests in Terai of Nepal. International Journal of Social Forestry (IJSF) 1 (2), 123-144.

Sartohadi, J., Suratman, Jamulya, dan, N.I.S. Dewi (2014). Cetakan III. Pengantar Geografi Tanah. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Schwarze, S., B. Schippers, R. Weber, H. Faust, M. Zeller, A. Wardhono, Z. Manfred and W. Kreisel (2007). Forest Products and Household Incomes: Evidence from Rural Households Living in the Rainforest Margins of Central Sulawesi. In T. Tscharntke, C. Leuschner, M. Zeller, E. Guhardja, A. Bidin (eds), The Stability of Tropical Rainforest Margins, Linking Ecological, Economic and Social Constraints of Land Use and Conservation (pp. 207-222). Berlin: Springer Verlag .

Sevillla, C.G., J.A. Ochave, T.G. Punzalan, B.P. Regalla, and G.G. Uriarte. (2007). Research Methods. Quezon City: Rex Printing Company.

Siddik, M., Amiruddin, dan N. Juniarsih. (2013). Perilaku Ekonomi Masyarakat Miskin di Sekitar Kawasan Hutan Gunung Rinjani Pulau Lombok. Jurnal Agribisnis Indonesia Vol 1 No 1, 27-38.

Siregar, H. dan D Wahyuniarti. (2007). Dampak Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Terhadap Penurunan Jumlah Penduduk Miskin. Pusat Sosial Ekonomi dan Kebijakan Pertanian. http://pse.litbang. pertanian.go.id/PROS_2008_mak3.pdf. Diunduh tanggal 2 Februari 2016.

Sztompka, P. (2007). Sosiologi Perubahan Sosial. Jakarta: Prenada Media.

The Assessment of Community Forestry Outcomes: a comparative analysis from Canada. Journal of Environmental Management 132, 257-267.

The World Bank. (2006). Melestarikan Pertumbuhan Ekonomi, Penghidupan Pedesaan, dan Manfaat Lingkungan: Opsi-opsi Strategis untuk Bantuan Kehutanan di Indonesia. Jakarta, Indonesia: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, The World Bank.

Todaro, M. (1977). Economic Development in The Third World. London: Longmans.

Toit, B.d., C.W. Smith, K.M. Little, G. Boreham, and R.N. Pallet. (2010). Intensive, Site-Specific Silviculture: Manipulating Resource Availability at Establishment for Improved Stand Productivity. A review of South African research. Forest Ecology and Management 259 , 18361845.

Vedeld, P., A. Jumane, G. Wapalila, and A. Songorwa. (2012). Protected areas, poverty and conflicts: A livelihood Case Study of Mikumi National Park, Tanzania. Forest Policy and Economics 21, 20-31.

Villegas, Z., M. Pen-Claros, B. Mostacedo, A. Alarcn, J. Licona, C. Leao, W. Pariona, and U. Choque. (2009). Silvicultural Treatments Enhance Growth Rates of Future Crop Trees in a Tropical Dry Forest. Forest Ecology and Management 258, 971-977.

Winata, N.G., P. Basuki, dan P. Karismawan. (2015). Analisis Determinan Pendapatan Petani Program Hutan Kemasyarakatan (HKm) di Kecamatan Batukliang Utara Kabupaten Lombok Tengah. Jurnal Sosial Ekonomi dan Humaniora, Vol. 1 No. 1, 33-42.

Word Agroforestry Centre. (2010). Sistem Agroforestri di Kawasan Penyangga Hutan Lindung Sesaot: Potensinya sebagai Penambat Karbon. Policy Analisis Unit, Brief No.7 .

Worku, A., J. Pretzsch, H. Kassa, dan E. Auch. (2014). The Significance of Dry Forest Income for Livelihood Resilience: The Case of the Mastoralists and Agro-pastoralists in the Drylands of Southeastern Ethiopia. Forest Policy and Econo-mics 41, 51-59.

Yuliani, Tutik. 2015. Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Dan Ketimpangan Pendapatan Antar Kabupaten di Kalimantan Timur. JEJAK Journal of Economic and Policy.8(1),45-53.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15294/jejak.v9i1.7185

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.