Performance Evaluation of Balancing Bicopter using P, PI, and PID Controller

Esa Apriaskar, Fahmizal Fahmizal, Nur Azis Salim, Dhidik Prastiyanto


Due to potential features of unmanned aerial vehicles for society, the development of bicopter has started to increase. This paper contributes to the development by presenting a performance evaluation of balancing bicopter control in roll attitude. It aims to determine the best controller structure for the balancing bicopter. The controller types evaluated are based on Ziegler-Nichols tuning method; they are proportional (P), proportional-integral (PI), and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers. Root locus plot of the closed-loop balancing bicopter system is used to decide the tuning approach. This work considers a difference in pulse-width-modulation (PWM) signal between the left and right rotors as the signal control and bicopter angle in roll movement as the output. Parameters tuned by the method are Kp, Ti, and Td which is based on the ideal PID structure. The performance test utilizes rising time, settling time, maximum overshoot, and steady-state error to determine the most preferred controller. The result shows that PI-controller has the best performance among the other candidates, especially in maximum overshoot and settling time. It reaches 8.34 seconds in settling time and 3.71% in maximum overshoot. Despite not being the best in rising time and resembling PID-controller performances in steady-state error criteria, PI-controller remains the most preferred structure considering the closeness of the response to the desired value.


Bicopter; roll attitude; ziegler-nichols; PID

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