Is the Frequency of Smoking Affecting the Risk of Abusing Cannabis?

Nurul Huriah Astuti, Sutanto Priyo Hastono

Abstract

The results of previous study found that teens that had a smoking habit were 14 times more likely to smoke cannabis than those who did not smoke. This study aims to determine the relationship between the frequency of smoking and cannabis abuse done through survival analysis. The research samples were 708 students of cannabis abusers who were previously preceded by smoking. The results of this study found that durability or length of time for abusing cannabis was mostly 1 – 4 years. The Wilcoxon test results concluded that there was a difference in survival to abusing cannabis among the frequency groups of smoking. Multivariate analysis also showed that the more number of cigarettes consumed, the greater the risk for abusing cannabis after being controlled by confounders. Conclusion of this study, the frequency of smoking affects the survival rate and the amount of risk to abusing cannabis.

Keywords

teens smokers, cannabis abuse, survival analysis

Full Text:

PDF

References

Agrawal, A., Madden, P.A.F., Martin, N.G., & Lynskey, M.T., 2013. Do Early Experiences with Cannabis Vary ini Cigarettes Smokers?. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 128 (3), pp.255–259.

Astuti, N.H., 2016. Smoking is the Entrance to Cannabis Type Drug Abuse. Arkesmas, 1(1).

National Narcotics Agency of the Republic of Indonesia, & Center for Health Research, University of Indonesia., 2017. Executive Summary of Survey Results of the National Narcotics Agency in 2016.

Badiani, A., Boden, J.M., De Pirro, S., Fergusson, D.M., Horwood, L.J., & Harold, G.T., 2015. Tobacco Smoking and Cannabis Use in a Longitudinal Birth Cohort: Evidence of Reciprocal Causal Relationships. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 150, pp.69–76.

Brière, F.N., Fallu, J.S., Descheneaux, A., & Janosz, M., 2011. Predictors and Consequences of Simultaneous Alcohol and Cannabis Use in Adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 36(7), pp.785–788.

Diaz-Guzman, E., & Mannino, D.M., 2014. Epidemiology and Prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Clinics in Chest Medicine, 35(1), pp.7–16.

Gates, P., Jaffe, A., & Copeland, J., 2014. Cannabis Smoking and Respiratory Health: Consideration of the Literature. Respirology, 19(5), pp.655–662.

Hemovich, V., & Crano, W.D., 2009. Family Structure and Adolescent Drug Use: An Exploration of Single-parent Families. Substance Use and Misuse, 44(14), pp.2099–2113.

Hindocha, C., Shaban, N.D.C., Freeman, T.P., Das, R.K., Gale, G., Schafer, G., Falconer, C.J., Morgan, C.J.A., & Curran, H.V., 2015. Associations between Cigarette Smoking and Cannabis Dependence: A Longitudinal Study of Young Cannabis Users in the United Kingdom. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 148, pp.165–171.

Indraswari, P.I.I., Lorensia, A., & Suryadinata, R.V., 2018. Analysis Effect of Nutrition Intake on Lung Function of Active Smoker and Non Smoker. Journal of Public Health, 14(2), pp.247–253.

Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia., 2018. Hasil Utama Riskesdas 2018.

Korhonen, T., Huizink, A.C., Dick, D.M., Pulkkinen, L., Rose, R.J., & Kaprio, J., 2008. Role of Individual, Peer, and Family Factors in the Use of Cannabis and Other Illicit Drugs : A Longitudinal Analysis Among Finnish Adolescent Twins. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 97 (1-2), pp.33–43.

Kristman-Valente, A.N., Hill, K.G., Epstein, M., Kosterman, R., Bailey, J.A., Steeger, C.M., Jones, T.M., Abbott, R.D., Johnson, R.M., Walker, D., & Hawkins, J.D., 2017. The Relationship Between Marijuana and Conventional Cigarette Smoking Behavior from Early Adolescence to Adulthood. Prevention Science, 428–438.

Mayet, A., Legleye, S., Chau, N., & Falissard, B., 2011. Transition Between Tobacco and Cannabis Use Among Adolescent : A Multi-Stage Modelling or Progression from Onset to Daily Use. Addictive Behaviors, 36 (11), pp.1101–1105.

Nurjanah., Kresnowati, L., & Mufid, A., 2014. Lung Function Disorders and Cotinine Levels in The Urine of Employees Who are Exposed to Secondhand Smoke. Journal of Public Health, 10(5), pp.43–52.

Öberg, M., Jaakkola, M.S., Woodward, A., Peruga, A., & Prüss-Ustün, A., 2011. Worldwide Burden of Disease from Exposure to Second-hand Smoke: A Retrospective Analysis of Data from 192 Countries. The Lancet, 377(9760), pp.139–146.

Scherrer, J.F., Xian, H., Pan, H., Pergadia, M.L., Madden, P.A.F., Grant, J.D., Sartor, C.E., Haber, J.R., Jacob, T., & Bucholz, K.K., 2012. Parent, Sibling and Peer Influences on Smoking Initiation, Regular Smoking and Nicotine Dependence. Results from A Genetically Informative Design. Addictive Behaviors, 37(3), pp.240–247.

Secades-Villa, R., Garcia-Rodríguez, O., Jin, C.J., Wang, S., & Blanco, C., 2015. Probability and Predictors of the Cannabis Gateway Effect: A National Study. International Journal of Drug Policy, 26(2), pp.135–142.

Subbaraman, M.S., & Kerr, W.C., 2015. Simultaneous Versus Concurrent Use of Alcohol and Cannabis in the National Alcohol Survey. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 39(5), pp.872–879.

Van Leeuwen, A.P., Verhulst, F.C., Reijneveld, S.A., Vollebergh, W.A.M., Ormel, J., Huizink, A.C., 2011. Can The Gateway Hypothesism The Common Liability Model Anad/Or, The Route of Administration Model Predict Initiation of Cannabis Use During Adolescence? A Survival Analysis-The TRAILS Study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 48(1), pp.73–78.

Weinberger, A.H., Pacek, L.R., Wall, M.M., Zvolensky, M.J., Copeland, J., Galea, S., Nahvi, S., Moeller, S.J., Hasin, D.S., & Goodwin, R.D., 2018. Trends in Cannabis Use Disorder by Cigarette Smoking Status in the United. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 191(July), pp.45–51.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.