A Cross-sectional Study of Nutritional Status and Cardiovascular Health Status among Housewives in Tegal Regency, Central Java

Mohammad Arif Ali, Gustiana Mega Anggita, Sugiarto Sugiarto, Setya Rahayu, Chia-En Yang, Phan Duc Anh Tran, Natsuangkorn Kongchulagul


Unhealthy diet and physical inactivity are two major factors related to degenerative diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, cancer, and it is still growing issues that mainly occurred in developing countries like Indonesia. It is a descriptive quantitative study, aims to investigate nutritional also cardiovascular health status among housewives in Tegal Regency, Central Java. Twenty adult women (33-57 years old) were voluntary and randomly signed up. Data on body weight (kg), height (cm), waist circumference (cm), hip circumference (cm), systolic-diastolic blood pressure (mm/hg) were collected by survey and measurement techniques. IBM SPSS 21 used to perform descriptive quantitative analysis for all data. Body mass index: 35% obese, 45% pre-obese, 5% overweight, 15% ideal weight. Waist circumference: 35% low category, 65% high category. Waist-to-hip ratio: 60% at risk of chronic diseases, 35% moderate, 5% good. Blood pressure: 40% hypertension stage-two, 25% hypertension stage-one, 25% elevated, 10% normal. Pre-obese and obese have found as the current nutritional status, followed by overweight. Meanwhile, hypertension has found as the current cardiovascular health status, followed by elevated blood pressure. This novel is empirical evidence for the housewife to be more physically active, and manage the diet to improve their health status.


physical inactivity; degenerative disease, sport medicine.

Full Text:



Aggarwal, B., Makarem, N., Shah, R., Emin, M., Wei, Y., St‐Onge, M., & Jelic, S., 2018. Effects of Inadequate Sleep on Blood Pressure and Endothelial Inflammation in Women: Findings from the American Heart Association Go Red for Women Strategically Focused Research Network. Journal of the American Heart Association, 7(12).

Ahmad, A., & Oparil, S., 2017. Hypertension in Women. Hypertension, 70(1), pp.19–26.

Ali, M. A., & Anam, K., 2017. Effects of Aerobic Exercise (Mixed Impact Aerobic Dance) Short-term Changes in Blood Pressure (Systolic & Diastolic), Resting Pulse, and Weight Gain in Young Adults (18-21 Years).

Blood Pressure Association., 2008. Blood Pressure Chart.

Booth, F.W., Roberts, C.K., Thyfault, J.P., Ruegsegger, G.N., & Toedebusch, R.G., 2017. Role of Inactivity in Chronic Diseases: Evolutionary Insight and Pathophysiological Mechanisms. Physiological Reviews, 97(4), pp.1351–1402.

Brumpton, B., Langhammer, A., Romundstad, P., Chen, Y., & Mai, X., 2013. General and Abdominal Obesity and Incident Asthma in Adults: The Hunt Study. European Respiratory Journal, 41(2), pp.323–329.

Calhoun, D.A., & Harding, S.M., 2010. Sleep and Hypertension. Chest, 138(2), pp.434–443.

Chaix, B., Bean, K., Leal, C., Thomas, F., Havard, S., Evans, D., Jégo, B., &Pannier, B., 2010. Individual/ Neighborhood Social Factors and Blood Pressure in the Record Cohort Study. Hypertension, 55(3), pp.769–775.

Chockalingam, A., 2007. Impact of World Hypertension Day. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 23(7), pp.517–519.

Cuschieri, S., Vassallo, J., Calleja, N., Pace, N., & Mamo, J., 2017. The Effects of Socioeconomic Determinants on Hypertension in A Cardiometabolic At-risk European Country. International Journal of Hypertension, 2017, pp.1–7.

Dorling, J., Broom, D.R., Burns, S.F., Clayton, D.J., Deighton, K., James, L.J., King, J.A., Miyashita, M., Thackray, A.E., Batterham, R.L., & Stensel, D.J., 2018. Acute and Chronic Effects of Exercise on Appetite, Energy Intake, and Appetite-Related Hormones: The Modulating Effect of Adiposity, Sex, and Habitual Physical Activity. Nutrients, 10(9), pp.1140.

Fazliana, M., Liyana, A.Z., Omar, A., Ambak, R., Nor, N.S.M., Shamsudin, U. K., Salleh, N.A., & Aris, T., 2018. Effects of Weight Loss Intervention on Body Composition and Blood Pressure Among Overweight and Obese Women: Findings from the MyBFF@home study. BMC Women’s Health, 18(S1), pp.93.

Geidl, W., Abu-Omar, K., Weege, M., Messing, S., & Pfeifer, K., 2020. German Recommendations for Physical Activity and Physical Activity Promotion in Adults with Noncommunicable Diseases. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 17(1), pp.12.

González, K., Fuentes, J., & Márquez, J.L., 2017. Physical Inactivity, Sedentary Behavior and Chronic Diseases. Korean Journal of Family Medicine, 38(3), pp.111.

Grandner, M., Mullington, J.M., Hashmi, S.D., Redeker, N.S., Watson, N.F., & Morgenthaler, T.I., 2018. Sleep Duration and Hypertension: Analysis of > 700,000 Adults by Age and Sex. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 14(6), pp.1031–1039.

Hartanto, A., & Yong, J.C., 2018. Measurement Matters: Higher Waist-to-hip Ratio but not Body Mass Index is Associated with Deficits in Executive Functions and Episodic Memory. PeerJ, 6, pp.e5624.

Hegde, S.M., & Solomon, S.D., 2015. Influence of Physical Activity on Hypertension and Cardiac Structure and Function. Current Hypertension Reports, 17(10), pp.77.

Inyang, M.P., 2015. Sedentary Lifestyle: Health Implications. IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science Ver. I, 4(2), pp.2320–1940.

Jiang, S.Z., Lu, W., Zong, X.F., Ruan, H.Y., & Liu, Y., 2016. Obesity and Hypertension. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 12(4), pp.2395–2399.

Kosoema, T.A., Chasani, S., & Handoyo, R., 2016. Comparison between Taichi Chuan and Jacobsons Progressive Muscular Relaxation in Decreasing Cortisol Concentration on Pre-Hypertension Patients. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat, 12(1), pp.52–59.

Kotsis, V., Jordan, J., Micic, D., Finer, N., Leitner, D.R., Toplak, H., & Nilsson, P.M., 2018. Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk. Journal of Hypertension, 36(7), pp.1427–1440.

Lassek, W.D., & Gaulin, S.J.C., 2018. Do the Low WHRs and BMIs Judged Most Attractive Indicate Higher Fertility?. Evolutionary Psychology, 16(4).

Leng, B., Jin, Y., Li, G., Chen, L., & Jin, N., 2015. Socioeconomic Status and Hypertension. Journal of Hypertension, 33(2), pp.221–229.

Nakita., 2019. Kegemukan?Ini Kebiasaan Ibu Rumah Tangga Yang Bikin Gagal Diet. Tribunnews.

Ntuk, U.E., Gill, J.M.R., Mackay, D.F., Sattar, N., & Pell, J.P., 2014. Ethnic-specific Obesity Cutoffs for Diabetes Risk: Cross-sectional Study of 490,288 UK Biobank Participants. Diabetes Care, 37(9), pp.2500–2507.

Owen, N., Sparling, P.B., Healy, G.N., Dunstan, D.W., & Matthews, C.E., 2010. Sedentary Behavior: Emerging Evidence for a New Health Risk. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 85(12), pp.1138-1141.

Pimenta, E., 2012. Hypertension in women. Hypertension Research, 35(2), pp.148–152.

Sabaka, P., Dukat, A., Gajdosik, J., Bendzala, M., Caprnda, M., & Simko, F., 2017. The Effects of Body Weight Loss and Gain on Arterial Hypertension Control: An Observational Prospective Study. European Journal of Medical Research, 22(1), pp.43.

Sutikno, E., 2011. Relationship of Family Function and Quality of Life for the Elderly. Universitas Sebelas Maret.

Touger-Decker, R., & Sirois, D.A., 2005. Oral Medicine and Nutrition Education. In Nutrition and Oral Medicine, pp. 299–305.

Utami, S.R., 2012. Nutritional Status, Physical Fitness and Work Productivity in Female Workers. Journal of Public Health, 8(1), pp.74–80.

Wenger, N.K., Arnold, A., Merz, C. N.B., Cooper-DeHoff, R.M., Ferdinand, K.C., Fleg, J.L., Gulati, M., Isiadinso, I., Itchhaporia, D., Light-McGroary, K.A., Lindley, K.J., Mieres, J.H., Rosser, M.L., Saade, G.R., Walsh, M.N., & Pepine, C.J., 2018. Hypertension Across a Woman’s Life Cycle. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 71(16), pp.1797–1813.

WHO., 2008. Waist Circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio Report of a WHO Expert Consultation. (December), pp.8–11.

Yang, Y.C., Boen, C., & Mullan, H.K., 2015. Social Relationships and Hypertension in Late Life. Journal of Aging and Health, 27(3), pp.403–431.

Zanchetti, A., 2017. Factors and Consequences of Hypertension. Journal of Hypertension, 35(1), pp.1–2.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15294/kemas.v16i1.25370


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.