Theorizing Internet, Religion and Post Truth: an Article Review

Moh Yasir Alimi(1),

(1) [SCOPUS ID: 56021489100] Semarang State University


Landscape of Indonesian politics is overshadowed by wide and massive distribution of hoaxes and bullshits. This article reviews 70 latest articles to answer the following questions: what is underlying behind massive distribution of hoaxes? Why do many Indonesian educated publics believe and share hoaxes?  Why are there more religion-based hoaxes than science or economy sciences based hoaxes in Indonesia? The author finds that the massive distribution of hoaxes and their easy acceptance by Indonesian publics reveals the emergence of post truth, a mind set where emotion is regarded to be more important than fact, evidence, or truth. In religius context, post truth illustrates the distribution of banal religion, un-verified forms religious interpretation, in internet and social media. Political competition during the presidential election accelerates the distribution of religion-based hoaxes.


post truth, hoaxes. social media

Full Text:



Agbedejobi, P. (2017). Challenging Online Radicalisation: A Refutation of Counter-Radicalisation Strategies, Counter-Narratives and a New Approach. Ssrn.

Ahmad, A. R., & Hamasaeed, N. H. (2015). The Role of Social Media in the Syrian Civil War. International Conference on Communications, Media, Technology and Design, 4(2).

Al-Rasheed, M. (1991). Sectarianism as Counter-Revolution: Saudi Responses to the Arab Spring. Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, 11(3), 513–527.

Al-Rawi, A. (2016). Facebook as a virtual mosque: The online protest against Innocence of Muslims. Culture and Religion, 17(1), 19–34.

Alava, Séraphin, Frau-Meigs, Divina, Hassan, & Ghayda. (2017). YOUTH AND VIOLENT EXTREMISM ON SOCIAL MEDIA MAPPING THE RESEARCH United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Retrieved from

Albertini, T. (2003). The Seductiveness of Certainty: The Destruction of Islam’s Intellectual Legacy by the Fundamentalists. Philosophy East and West, 53(4), 455–470.

Allcott, H., & Gentzkow, M. (2017). Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 31(2), 211–236.

AlSayyad, N., & Guvenc, M. (2015). Virtual Uprisings: On the Interaction of New Social Media, Traditional Media Coverage and Urban Space during the ‘Arab Spring.’ Urban Studies, 52(11), 2018–2034.

Anderson, J. O. N. W. (1999). New Media in the Muslim World : T h e Emerging Public Sphere. Media, 1958–1958.

Aouragh, M. (2011). The Egyptian Experience: Sense and Nonsense of the Internet Revolution. International Journal of Communication, 5, 1344–1358.–8036/2011FEA1344

Ashour, O. (2009). The De- ­ Radicalization of Jihadists. London: Routledge.

Ashour, O. (2010). Online De-Radicalization? Countering Violent Extremist Narratives: Message, Messenger and Media Strategy. Perspectives on Terrorism, 4(6), 15–19.

Avis, W. R. (2016). The role of online/social media in countering violent extremism in East Africa Question What is the role for online/social media for countering violent extremism in East Africa? GSDRC Working Paper.

Baum, M. A., & Groeling, T. (2008). New media and the polarization of American political discourse. Political Communication, 25(4), 345–365.

Beam, M. A., Hutchens, M. J., & Hmielowski, J. D. (2018). Facebook news and (de)polarization: reinforcing spirals in the 2016 US election. Information Communication and Society, 21(7), 940–958.

Beaulieu, A. (2004). Mediating ethnography: Objectivity and the making of ethnographies of the internet. Social Epistemology.

Bertram, L. (2016). Terrorism, the Internet and the Social Media Advantage: Exploring how terrorist organizations exploit aspects of the internet, social media and how these same platforms could be used to counter-violent extremism. Journal for Deradicalization, Summer(7), 225–252.

Beyers, J. (2015). Religion as Political Instrument: The Case of Japan and South Africa. Journal for the Study of Religion, 281(2015), 142–164. Retrieved from

Bhaskaran, H., Mishra, H., & Nair, P. (2017). Contextualizing Fake News in Post-truth Era: Journalism Education in India. Asia Pacific Media Educator, 27(1), 41–50.

Binte, H., & Sani, A. (2010). the Rise and Role of Tariqa Among Muslims in Singapore – the Case of the Naqshbandi Haqqani. B. Soc. Sci.

Birkner, T. (2015). Mediatization of politics: The case of the former German chancellor Helmut Schmidt. European Journal of Communication, 30(4), 454–469.

Bizina, M., & Gray, D. H. (2014). Radicalization of Youth as a Growing Concern for Counter-Terrorism Policy. Global Security Studies, 5(1).

Bloom, M., Tiflati, H., & Horgan, J. (2017). Navigating ISIS’s Preferred Platform: Telegram1. Terrorism and Political Violence, 6553(July), 1–13.

Borden, S. L., & Tew, C. (2007). The Role of Journalist and the Performance of Journalism: Ethical Lessons From “Fake†News (Seriously). Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 22(4), 300–314.

Bouzar, D., Caupenne, C., & Valsan, S. (2014). THE METAMORPHOSIS INSIDE YOUNG An English compilation of reports produced by.

Bowen, J. (2007). A view from France on the internal complexity of national models. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 33(6), 1003–1016.

Bowen, J. R. (1998a). Law and Social Norms in the Comparative Study of Islam - reviews. American Anthropologist, 100(4), 1034–1038.

Bowen, J. R. (1998b). What Is “Universal†and “Local†in Islam? Ethos, 26(2), 258–261.

Bowen, J. R. (2002). John R.Bowen - Islam in/of France: Dilemmas of Translocality – Mai 2002 1. Islam Zeitschrift Für Geschichte Und Kultur Des Islamischen Orients, 1–14.

Bowen, J. R. (2010). Secularism: Conceptual genealogy or political dilemma? Comparative Studies in Society and History, 52(3), 680–694.

Bowen, J. R. (2014). Salat in Indonesia : The Social Meanings of an Islamic Ritual Author ( s ): John R . Bowen THE SOCIAL IN INDONESIA : OF AN ISLAMIC MEANINGS, 24(4), 600–619.

BOWEN, J. R. (1988). the transformation of an Indonesian property system: adat , Islam, and social change in the Gayo highlands. American Ethnologist, 15(2), 274–293.

Bowler, G., & Bowler Jr, G. M. (2010). Netnography: A method specifically designed to study cultures and communities online. The Qualitative Report, 15(5), 1270–1275. Retrieved from Jr - 2010 - Netnography a method specifically designed to stu.pdf%5Cn

Brunello, A. R. (2014). The Effects of Politicization and Moralism in Religion and Public Thought. Journal of Social Science for Policy Implications, 2(2), 295–322.

Bucher, T. (2017). The algorithmic imaginary: exploring the ordinary affects of Facebook algorithms. Information Communication and Society, 20(1), 30–44.

Burroughs, B., & Feller, G. (2015). Religious Memetics: Institutional Authority in Digital/Lived Religion. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 39(4), 357–377.

Campbell, H. (2007). Who’s got the power? Religious authority and the Internet. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12(3), 1043–1062.

Campbell, H. A. (2004). Challenges Created by Online Religious Networks. Journal of Media and Religion, 3(2), 81–99.

Carlson, M. (2018). Fake news as an informational moral panic: the symbolic deviancy of social media during the 2016 US presidential election. Information, Communication & Society, 0(0), 1–15.

Carter, J. a, Maher, S., & Neumann, P. R. (2014). #Greenbirds: Measuring Importance and Influence in Syrian Foreign Fighter Networks. The International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence, 1–36.

Chatfield, A. T., Reddick, C. G., & Brajawidagda, U. (2015). Tweeting Propaganda, Radicalization and Recruitment: Islamic State Supporters Multi-sided Twitter Networks. 16th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research (Dg.o 2015), 239–249.

Chetty, N., & Alathur, S. (2018). Hate speech review in the context of online social networks. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 40, 108–118.

Conway, M. (2006). Terrorist ‘Use’ of the Internet and Fighting Back. Information & Security: An International Journal, 19, 9–30.

Conway, M. (2017). Determining the role of the internet in violent extremism and terrorism: Six suggestions for progressing research. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 40(1), 77–98.

Costello, M., Barrett-Fox, R., Bernatzky, C., Hawdon, J., & Mendes, K. (2018). Predictors of Viewing Online Extremism Among America’s Youth. Youth and Society.

Davies, G., Neudecker, C., Ouellet, M., Bouchard, M., & Ducel, B. (2016). Toward a Framework Understanding of Online Programs for Countering Violent Extremism. Journal for Deradicalization, 6, 51–86.

Del Vicario, M., Vivaldo, G., Bessi, A., Zollo, F., Scala, A., Caldarelli, G., & Quattrociocchi, W. (2016). Echo Chambers: Emotional Contagion and Group Polarization on Facebook. Scientific Reports, 6, 1–12.

Demant, F., & de Graaf, B. (2010). How to counter radical narratives: Dutch deradicalization policy in the case of Moluccan and Islamic radicals. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 33(5), 408–428.

Downey, J., & Fenton, N. (2003). New media, counter publicity and the public sphere. New Media and Society, 5(2), 185–202.

Driscoll, C., & Gregg, M. (2010). My profile: The ethics of virtual ethnography. Emotion, Space and Society, 3(1), 15–20.

Eickelman, D. F., & Salvatore, A. (2002). The public sphere and Muslim identities. Archives Europeennes de Sociologie, 43(1), 92–115.

Eikelman, D. F. (1992). Mass Higher Education and the Religious Imagination in Contemporary Arab Societies. American Ethnologist, 19(4), 643–655.

Eisenlohr, P. (2016). Reconsidering mediatization of religion: Islamic televangelism in India. Media, Culture, & Society.

El-Din Haseeb, K. (2012). The Arab Spring Revisited. Contemporary Arab Affairs, 5(2), 185–197.

Farwell, J. P. (2014). The Media Strategy of ISIS. Survival, 56(6), 49–55.

Frankfurt, H. G. (1985). On bullshit. Raritan, 6, 81–100.

Fraune, C., & Knodt, M. (2018). Sustainable energy transformations in an age of populism, post-truth politics, and local resistance. Energy Research and Social Science, 43(April), 1–7.

French, M., & Bazarova, N. N. (2017). Is Anybody Out There?: Understanding Masspersonal Communication Through Expectations for Response Across Social Media Platforms. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 22(6), 303–319.

Gachau, J. (2016). Communicating Difference through Social Media: The Case of a Kenyan Facebook Group. African Journalism Studies, 37(4), 62–80.

Garcia et al. (2010). Ethnographic Approaches to the Internet. SAGE Internet Research Methods, 52–84.

Geeraerts, S. (2012). Digital radicalization of youth. Social Cosmos, 3(1), 25–32. Retrieved from

Githens-Mazer, J. (2012). The rhetoric and reality: Radicalization and political discourse. International Political Science Review, 33(5), 556–567.

Hallaq, W. B. (1985). The Logic of Legal Reasoning in Religious and Non-Religious Cultures: The Case of Islamic Law and the Common Law. Cleveland State Law Review, 34, 79.

Halpern, D., Valenzuela, S., & Katz, J. E. (2017). We Face, I Tweet: How Different Social Media Influence Political Participation through Collective and Internal Efficacy. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 22(6), 320–336.

Hamilton, M. S. (2017). The Role of New Media in the Radicalization of Diasporic Youth. CLAMANTIS: The MALS Journal, 1(3). Retrieved from

Hampton, K. N., Shin, I., & Lu, W. (2017). Social media and political discussion: when online presence silences offline conversation. Information Communication and Society, 20(7), 1090–1107.

Hasan, N. (2009). The making of public Islam: Piety, agency, and commodification on the landscape of the Indonesian public sphere. Contemporary Islam, 3(3), 229–250.

Hassan, G., Brouillette-Alarie, S., Alava, S., Frau-Meigs, D., Lavoie, L., Fetiu, A., … Sieckelinck, S. (2018b). Exposure to Extremist Online Content Could Lead to Violent Radicalization:A Systematic Review of Empirical Evidence. International Journal of Developmental Science, (July), 1–18.

Hassan, G., Brouillette-Alarie, S., Alava, S., Frau-Meigs, D., Lavoie, L., Fetiu, A., … Sieckelinck, S. (2018a). Exposure to Extremist Online Content Could Lead to Violent Radicalization:A Systematic Review of Empirical Evidence. International Journal of Developmental Science, 1–18.

Hepp, A. (2013). The communicative figurations of mediatized worlds: Mediatization research in times of the “mediation of everything.†European Journal of Communication, 28(6), 615–629.

Hjarvard, S. (2008). The mediatization of religion: A theory of the media as agents of religious change. Northern Lights: Film and Media Studies Yearbook, 6(1), 9–26.

Hjarvard, S. (2011a). Culture and Religion : An The mediatisation of religion : Theorising religion , media and social change, (January 2013), 37–41.

Hjarvard, S. (2011b). Culture and Religion : An The mediatisation of religion : Theorising religion , media and social change. Culture and Religion, (January 2013), 119–135.

Hjarvard, S. (2011c). The mediatisation of religion: Theorising religion, media and social change. Culture and Religion, 12(2), 119–135.

Hjarvard, S. (2012). Three Forms of Mediatized Religion. Mediatization and Religion: Nordic Perspectives, (2012), 21–44.

Hjarvard, S. (2015). Mediatization and the changing authority of religion. Media, Culture & Society, 38(1), 1–10.

Hjarvard, S. (2016). Mediatization and the changing authority of religion. Media, Culture and Society, 38(1), 8–17.

Hopkin, J., & Rosamond, B. (2017). Post-truth Politics, Bullshit and Bad Ideas: ‘Deficit Fetishism’ in the UK. New Political Economy, 0(0), 1–15.

Howard, P. N., Duffy, A., Freelon, D., Hussain, M., Mari, W., & Mazaid, M. (2011). What was the role of social media during the Arab Spring ? Project on Information Technologu and Political Islam, 1–30.

Huey, L. (2015). This is Not Your Mother’s Terrorism: Social Media, Online Radicalization and the Practice of Political Jamming. Journal of Terrorism Research, 6(2), 1–16.

Hughes, C. J. (2012). SAGE Internet Research Methods Ethnographic Approaches to the Internet and Computer-mediated Communication Ethnographic Approaches to the Internet and Computer-mediated Communication.

Jasanoff, S., & Simmet, H. R. (2017). No funeral bells: Public reason in a ‘post-truth’ age. Social Studies of Science, 47(5), 751–770.

Jongman, B. (2018). Recent Online Resources for the Analysis of Terrorism and Related Subjects. Perspectives on Terrorism (Vol. 12).

Jungherr, A. (2016). Twitter use in election campaigns: A systematic literature review. Journal of Information Technology and Politics, 13(1), 72–91.

Kalpokas, I. (2017a). Affective Capacity in Post- Truth Politics : Rereading Spinoza ’ s Ethics. PSA.

Kalpokas, I. (2017b). Affective Capacity in Post- Truth Politics : Rereading Spinoza ’ s Ethics.

Käsehage, N. (2017). Special correspondence. De-Radicalisiing Militant Salafis. Perspective on Terrorism, 11(1), 77–79.

Kharroub, T., & Bas, O. (2015). Social media and protests: An examination of Twitter images of the 2011 Egyptian revolution. New Media & Society, (December 2010), 1–20.

Klausen, J. (2015). Tweeting the Jihad: Social media networks of Western foreign fighters in Syria and Iraq. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 38(1), 1–22.

Koehler, D. (2014). The radical online: Individual radicalization processes and the role of the Internet. Journal for Deradicalization, (1), 116–134. Retrieved from

Kozinets, R. V. (2010). Netnography: Doing ethnographic research online. International Journal of Advertising, 29(2), 328–330.

Kruglanski, A. W., Gelfand, M. J., Bélanger, J. J., Sheveland, A., Hetiarachchi, M., & Gunaratna, R. (2014). The psychology of radicalization and deradicalization: How significance quest impacts violent extremism. Political Psychology, 35(SUPPL.1), 69–93.

Lakomy, M. (2017). Cracks in the Online “Caliphateâ€: How the Islamic State is Losing Ground in the Battle for Cyberspace. Perspectives on Terrorism, 11(3), 40–53. Retrieved from

Lewandowsky, S., Ecker, U. K. H., & Cook, J. (2017). Beyond Misinformation: Understanding and Coping with the “Post-Truth†Era. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 6(4), 353–369.

Lim, M. (2008). Bundling Meta-Narratives on the Internet: Conflict in Maluku. In Media & Conflict Reporting in Asia (pp. 170–198). Singapore: AMIC.

Lim, M. (2013a). Many Clicks but Little Sticks: Social Media Activism in Indonesia. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 43(4), 636–657.

Lim, M. (2013b). The Internet and Everyday Life in Indonesia: A New Moral Panic? Bijdragen Tot de Taal-, Land- En Volkenkunde / Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences of Southeast Asia, 169(1), 133–147.

Lim, M. (2017). Freedom to hate: social media, algorithmic enclaves, and the rise of tribal nationalism in Indonesia. Critical Asian Studies, 49(3), 411–427.

Lockie, S. (2017). Post-truth politics and the social sciences. Environmental Sociology, 3(1), 1–5.

Lotan, G., Graeff, E., Ananny, M., Gaffney, D., Pearce, I., & Boyd, D. (2011). The Revolutions Were Tweeted. International Journal of Communication, 5, 1375-. Retrieved from

Lövheim, M. (2011). Mediatisation of religion: A critical appraisal. Culture and Religion, 12(2), 153–166.

Lövheim, M. (2016). Mediatization: analyzing transformations of religion from a gender perspective. Media, Culture & Society, 38(1), 18–27.

Lövheima, M., & Lynchb, G. (2011). The mediatisation of religion debate: An introduction. Culture and Religion, 12(2), 111–117.

Lundby, K., Hjarvard, S., Lövheim, M., & Jernsletten, H. H. (2017). Religion between politics and media: Conflicting attitudes towards Islam in Scandinavia. Journal of Religion in Europe, 10(4), 437–456.

Lynch, G. (2011). What can we learn from the mediatisation of religion debate? Culture and Religion, 12(2), 203–210.

Mabon, S. (2013). Aiding Revolution? Wikileaks, communication and the “Arab Spring†in Egypt. Third World Quarterly, 34(10), 1843–1857.

Macnair, L., & Frank, R. (2017). Voices against extremism: A case study of a community-based CVE counter-narrative campaign. Journal of Deradicalization, 10(Spring), 147–174.

Makhasin, L. (2016). Urban Sufism, Media and Religious Change in Indonesia. IjtimÄ`iyya: Journal of Muslim Society Research.

Markham, A. N. (2011). Internet Research. Qualitative Research2, 111–127.

Marmot, M. (2017). Post-truth and science. The Lancet.

McGrew, S., Ortega, T., Breakstone, J., & Wineburg, S. (2017). The Challenge That’s Bigger Than Fake News: Civic Reasoning in a Social Media Environment. American Educator, (Fall), 4–10. Retrieved from

Moghaddam, F. M. (2005). The staircase to terrorism a psychological exploration. American Psychologist, 60(2), 161–169.

Mohamed, H. E. A., & Amr, S. (2015). Youth and the Internet : Fighting Radicalization and Extremism Remarks Permanent Delegate of the Arab Republic of Egypt to UNESCO, (June).

Montgomery, M. (2017). Post-truth politics? Journal of Language and Politics, 16(4), 619–639.

More, M. (2015). A Political Theory of Teritory.

Morgan, D. (2011). Mediation or mediatisation: The history of media in the study of religion. Culture and Religion, 12(2), 137–152.

Narayanan, V., Barash, V., Kollanyi, B., Neudert, L.-M., & Howard, P. N. (2018). Polarization, Partisanship and Junk News Consumption over Social Media in the US. Arxiv.Org, 1(6), 1–6.

Niekerk, B. Van, Pillay, K., & Maharaj, M. (2011). Analyzing the Role of ICTs in the Tunisian and Egyptian Unrest from an Information Warfare Perspective. International Journal of Communication, 5, 1406–1416.–8036/20111406

Niklewicz, K. (2017). Weeding Out Fake News: An Approach to Social Media Regulation. European View, 16(2), 335–335.

O’Callaghan, D., Prucha, N., Greene, D., Conway, M., Carthy, J., & Cunningham, P. (2014). Online social media in the Syria conflict: Encompassing the extremes and the in-betweens. ASONAM 2014 - Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining, (Asonam), 409–416.

Ott, B. L. (2017). The age of Twitter: Donald J. Trump and the politics of debasement. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 34(1), 59–68.

Owais, R. (2011). Arab Media during the Arab Spring in Egypt and Tunisia : Time for Change Arab Media during the Arab Spring in Egypt and Tunisia : Time for. Middle East, 1(1), 9–13.

Pearson, E. (2017). Online as the New Frontline: Affect, Gender, and ISIS-Take-Down on Social Media. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 0731, 1–25.

Penney, J. (2018). Young People as Political Influencers on Social Media: Skepticism and Network Thinking. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Social Media and Society - SMSociety ’18, 355–359.

Perešin, A. (2015). Fatal Attraction: Western Muslims and ISIS. Perspectives on Terrorism, 9(3), 21–38.

Peters, M. A. (2017). Post-truth and fake news. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 49(6), 567.

Peters, M. A. (2018). Education in a post-truth world. Post-Truth, Fake News: Viral Modernity Higher Education, 1857, 145–150.

Piraino, F. (2016). Between real and virtual communities: Sufism in Western societies and the Naqshbandi Haqqani case. Social Compass, 63(1), 93–108.

Proceedings, T. S., & Jansohn, C. (2018). Brexit Means Brexit ? The Selected Proceedings of the Symposium , (December 2017).

Qureshi, P. A. R., Memon, N., Wiil, U. K., & Karampelas, P. (2011). Detecting Social Polarization and Radicalization. International Journal of Machine Learning and Computing, 1(1), 49–57.

Rauniar, R., Rawski, G., Johnson, B., & Yang, J. (2013). Social Media User Satisfaction-Theory Development and Research Findings. Journal of Internet Commerce, 12(2), 195–224.

Roberts, D. (2010). Post-truth politics | Grist, 25–27. Retrieved from

Rochlin, N. (2017). Fake news: belief in post-truth. Library Hi Tech, 35(3), 386–392.

Rose, J. (2017). Brexit, Trump, and Post-Truth Politics. Public Integrity, 19(6), 555–558.

Sade-Beck, L. (2004). Internet Ethnography: Online and Offline. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 3(2), 45–51.

Sardarnia, K., & Safizadeh, R. (2017). The Internet and Its Potentials for Networking and Identity Seeking: A Study on ISIS. Terrorism and Political Violence, 00(00), 1–18.

Scannell, P. (2016). Media and religion. Media, Culture & Society, 38(1), 3–7.

Schmid, A. P. (2014). Al-Qaeda’s “Single Narrative†and Attempts to Develop Counter-Narratives: The State of Knowledge. The Hague: ICCT, (January), 1–38.

Schmid, A. P., & Price, E. (2011). Selected literature on radicalization and de-radicalization of terrorists: Monographs, Edited Volumes, Grey Literature and Prime Articles published since the 1960s. Crime, Law and Social Change, 55(4), 337–348.

Schrooten, M. (2012). Moving ethnography online: Researching Brazilian migrants’ online togetherness. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 35(10), 1794–1809.

Senay, B. (2014). The Fall and Rise of the Ney : From the Sufi Lodge to the World Stage. Ethnomusicology Forum, 23(3), 405–424.

Setianto, Y. P. (2015). Mediatization of Religion: How the Indonesian Muslim Diasporas Mediatized Islamic Practices. Journal of Media and Religion, 14(4), 230–244.

Shirazi, F. (2013). Social media and the social movements in the Middle East and North Africa: A critical discourse analysis. Information Technology and People, 26(1), 28–49.

Silber, M. D., & Bhatt, A. (2007). Radicalization in the west: The homegrown threat.

Spohr, D. (2017). Fake news and ideological polarization: Filter bubbles and selective exposure on social media. Business Information Review, 34(3), 150–160.

Stanford History Education Group, Wineburg, S., McGrew, S., Breakstone, J., & Ortega, T. (2016). Evaluating information: The cornerstone of civic online reasoning. Stanford Digital Repository, 29.

Strong SI. (2018). Truth in a Post-Truth Society: How Sticky Defaults, Status Quo Bians, and the Sovereign Prerogative Influence the Perceived Legitimacy of International Arbitration. U III L Rev.

Sunstein, C. (2017). #Republic: Divided Democracy in the Age of Social Media. Princeton University Press.

Tsuria, R., Yadlin-Segal, A., Vitullo, A., & Campbell, H. A. (2017). Approaches to digital methods in studies of digital religion. Communication Review, 20(2), 73–97.

Valenzuela, S. (2013). Unpacking the Use of Social Media for Protest Behavior: The Roles of Information, Opinion Expression, and Activism. American Behavioral Scientist, 57(7), 920–942.

Warner, B. R. (2010). Segmenting the electorate: The effects of exposure to political extremism online. Communication Studies, 61(4), 430–444.

Warner, B. R., & McKinney, M. S. (2013). To Unite and Divide: The Polarizing Effect of Presidential Debates. Communication Studies, 64(5), 508–527.

Weimann, G. (2004). How Modern Terrorism Uses the Internet. In Special Report (Vol. 116).

Wesselhoeft, K. M. Y. (2010). Making muslim minds: Question and answer as a genre of moral reasoning in an urban French mosque. Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 78(3), 790–823.

Wilner, A. S., & Dubouloz, C. (2010). Homegrown terrorism and transformative learning : an interdisciplinary approach to understanding radicalization Homegrown terrorism and transformative learning : an interdisciplinary approach to understanding radicalization. Global Change, Peace, and Security, 22(1), 37–41.

Woolley, S. C., & Howard, P. (2017). Computational Propaganda Worldwide: Executive Summary. Oxford Internet Institue, (11), 36. Retrieved from

Yılmaz, İ. (2005). Muslim Laws, Politics And Society In Modern Nation States: Dynamic Legal Pluralisms In England, Turkey And Pakistan, 280. Retrieved from

Younas, M. A. (2018). “ Digital Jihad †and its Significance to Counterterrorism, 6(2), 10–17.

Aravindh, R. V., & Baratwaj, S. S. G. Discourse in Whatsapp: A Study on the contents shared by users in Coimbatore district.

Mark W. Schaefer (2016) 15 Amazing ways social media is changing the world.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.