KERBAU UNTUK LELUHUR: DIMENSI HORIZONTAL DALAM RITUS KEMATIAN PADA AGAMA MERAPU

Gunawan Gunawan

Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan menggali makna yang terkandung dalam ritual mengorbankan kerbau dalam ritus kematian pada agama Marapu. Pengamatan dilakukan pada masyarakat Sumba penganut agama merapu. Fenomena keagamaan dalam masyarakat secara antropologis dapat dilihat dari aras sakral dan profan. Aras sakral menempatkan fenomena keagamaan dalam hubungan vertikal antara manusia dengan tuhan sebagai pemilik kekuatan adikodrati. Sedangkan pada aras profan melihat fenomena keagamaan dalam hubungan horisontal yang terbangun dalam relasi sosial antar pendukungnya. Tulisan ini menunjukkan bahwa dalam kehidupan sehari-hari aras sakral dan profan tidaklah terpisah sama sekali. Aktifitas yang tampaknya profan ternyata terkait dengan wilayah sakral seperti yang terjadi pada masyarakat Sumba. Keberadaan ternak khususnya kerbau menjadi penghubung antara wilayah sakral dan profan. Memelihara ternak, khususnya kerbau merupakan aktifitas sehari-hari yang bersifat profan namun menjadi sakral manakala kerbau hadir dalam ritual kematian. Sehingga secara nyata aktifitas profan dalam memelihara ternak khususnya kerbau akan menjamin tetap tegaknya agama Marapu.

The objective of this study is to reveal the meaning behind the sacrifice of buffalo in the death rituals of Merapu religion. The observation was done among Sumba community, the followers of Merapu religion. Religious phenomena in the anthropological community can be seen from the sacred and profane dimension. In sacred level, religious phenomenon builds the vertical relationship between man and God as the owner of supernatural power. While the level of profane views religious phenomena in a horizontal relationship built within particular social relations. This paper shows that in the level of everyday life, the sacred and the profane are not separated at all as best exemplified by Sumba community ritual of buffalo sacrifice. Seemingly profane activities were related to the sacred as exemplified by Sumba people particularly the followers of Merapu belief. The presence of livestock especially buffaloes became a liaison between the sacred and the profane. Livestock, particularly buffalo are daily profane activities, but when the buffalo are present in the death ritual, they become sacred. Profane activities in raising livestock especially the buffalo ensures the upholding of Marapu belief.

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