POLITIK RELASI ETNIK: MATRILINEALITAS DAN ETNIK MINORITAS CINA DI PADANG, SUMATRA BARAT

Laila Kholid Alfirdaus, Eric Hiariej, Farsijana Adeney Risakotta

Abstract

Relasi etnik Minang dan etnik Cina di Padang, Sumatra Barat, menarik untuk dikaji. Melalui desk-study atas kajian Minang dan Cina, yang diperkuat dengan penelitian lapangan pada 2010 dan 2013 secara kualitatif dengan wawancara dan observasi, tulisan ini menemukan bahwa tidak cukup melihat relasi etnik Minang dan Cina dari perspektif ekonomi politik. Kita perlu memberikan perhatian terhadap faktor budaya dan budaya politik masyarakat Minang di Padang yang bercorak matrilineal. Jika literatur yang ada cenderung deterministik, menghasilkan dua pandangan yang secara ekstrem berbeda, yang dalam artikel ini disebut pandangan manis dan sinis, tulisan ini berargumen sebaliknya. Relasi etnik Minang dan etnik Cina tidak bisa secara buru-buru disebut manis hanya karena etnik Cina telah menetap dan berpartisipasi dalam kehidupan sosial ekonomi Padang sejak zaman penjajahan, atau karena Padang relatif minim kerusuhan dibandingkan kota lainnya. Demikian juga, ia tidak bisa serta merta dilihat secara sinis hanya karena segregasi sosial terlihat lebih kentara. Tulisan ini berargumen bahwa dua wajah yang secara bersamaan terjadi tidak lepas dari bentukan budaya Minang yang lekat dengan nilai-nilai matrilineal yang tertuang dalam ide feministik Bundo Kanduang

Inter-etnic relations between Minang and Chinese in Padang, West Sumatra, that looks different compared to other societies in Indonesia is interesting to discuss. Through a desk study about Minang and Chinese, being strengthened with fieldworks in 2010 and 2013 using qualitative methods in which in-depth interview and non-participatory observations, this article found that political economy perspective being used to explain Minang-Chinese relations is not enough. We need to pay attention on culture and political culture of Minangkabau society in Padang, that is matrilineal in the nature. While the existing lieratures tend to strictly classify the relations into sweet and cynical (good and bad relations), this article argue the contrary. The relatively long encounter of Chinese with Minang in Padang as well as the less conflicts (mass violence) against Chinese compared to the other regions could not be simply categorized as manis (sweet relations). Similarly, we should not undermine the good relations between Minang and Chinese, existing in some ocassions merely as formalistic practices just because of segregation in Minang and Chineses residential areas. This article argues that the twocontrary but inseparable faces of Minang-Chineses relations are inseparable from the Minangkabau culture that is matrilineal in the nature, as manifested in Bundo Kanduang containing the idea of femininity.

Keywords

inter-ethnic relations; politics; Minang; Chinese; matrilinealism

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References

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