ADAPTASI PERUBAHAN IKLIM KOMUNITAS DESA: STUDI KASUS DI KAWASAN PESISIR UTARA PULAU AMBON

Subair -, Lala M. Kolopaking, Soeryo Adiwibowo, M. Bambang Pranowo

Abstract

Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis strategi adaptasi komunitas nelayan terhadap dampak perubahan iklim. Lokasi penelitian di desa nelayan Asilulu, ditetapkan secara purposive mewakili karakteristik desa pesisir di kawasan pantai utara pulau Ambon Maluku. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode kasus historis sebuah metode studi sosiologi yang memadukan dua pendekatan yaitu sosiologi sejarah dan sejarah sosiologis. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan metode hermeunetik dan dialektika dalam waktu kurang lebih 2 tahun (April 2010 Juni 2012) menggunakan teknik pengamatan berperan serta, focus group discussion, wawancara mendalam, dan studi pustaka. Penelitian menunjukkan hasil bahwa komunitas nelayan di desa Asilulu telah merasakan dampak dari perubahan iklim yang menekan sistem penghidupan mereka meliputi kenaikan permukaan laut, intensitas badai dan gelombang tinggi, perubahan fishing ground dan kekacauan musim tangkap. Kerentanan komunitas dikategorikan tingkat sedang dan karenanya masih dalam area coping range komunitas. Nelayan melakukan adaptasi proaktif dan reaktif dalam strategi adaptasi fisik, sosial-ekonomi, dan sumber daya manusia yang sejauh ini mampu meningkatkan lebar selang toleransi sehingga kerentanan dapat dikurangi dan resiliensi sistem meningkat. Kondisi ini membuat komunitas nelayan cukup resilien.

The purpose of this study is to identify the adaptation strategies of a fishing community to respond the impact of climate change. Location of the study in the fishing village Asilulu, determined purposively to represent the characteristics of the coastal villages in the north coast of the island of Ambon Maluku. The method used is the method of historical case a sociological study method that combines two approaches, historical sociology and sociological history. Data collected between April 2010-June 2012, using the technique of participant observation, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and literature. Research shows that the fishing community in the village Asilulu have felt the impact of climate change which suppress their livelihood systems include sea level rise, storm intensity and high waves, changes in fishing grounds and fishing seasons chaos. Community vulnerability and therefore categorized as being still in the area of community coping range. Fishermen proactive adaptation and reactive adaptation strategies in physical, socio-economic, and human resources are so far able to increase the width of the tolerance interval so that vulnerabilities can be reduced and the resilience of the system increases.

Keywords

climate change; vulnerability; adaptation; coping range; community resilience

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