TRANSFORMASI PRANATA PATRONASE MASYARAKAT NELAYAN: DARI EKONOMI MORALITAS MENUJU EKONOMI PASAR

Mirajiani -, Ekawati S.Wahyuni, Arif Satria, Saharuddin -, Tridoyo Kusumastanto

Abstract

Masyarakat nelayan mengalami transformasi sosial ekonomi akibat penetrasi pembangunan dan pasar. Transformasi sosial ekonomi yang terjadi membawa perubahan signifikan pranata ekonomi nelayan, karena nelayan harus mengkonstruksikan pranata ekonomi baru yang dianggap dapat mempertahankan penghidupan nelayan pada kondisi survival dan sesuai dengan perubahan yang terjadi. Penelitian ini mendalami bagaimana transformasi pranata patronase yang terjadi dan keterkaitannya dengan keterjaminan ekonomi pada masyarakat nelayan di Pesisir Ujung Kulon. Metode penelitian menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan tipe penelitian studi kasus. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan masyarakat nelayan di Pesisir Ujung Kulon mengalami transformasi pranata ekonomi dari patronase berbasis moralitas menjadi berbasis norma ekonomi pasar. Di era ekonomi pasar, patronase merupakan suatu alternatif pranata ekonomi nelayan yang dibangun untuk tetap bertahan dengan situasi krisis dan ketidakpastian ekonomi serta mata pencaharian yang bersifat fluktuatif. Ditinjau dari keterjaminan ekonomi, pranata patronase moralitas di masa lalu lebih memberikan jaminan ekonomi nelayan pada situasi krisis daripada pranata patronase berbasis norma ekonomi pasar. Pada situasi di mana pranata patronase tidak bisa sepenuhnya berfungsi sebagai pranata jaminan ekonomi nelayan, maka untuk tetap bertahan pada situasi ekonomi yang kurang terjamin nelayan mengandalkan relasi ekonomi alternatif yang disediakan pasar di luar patronase.

Fishing communities experiencing socio-economic transformation as a result of development and market penetration. Socio-economic transformation is followed by significant change in economic institutions, as fishermen have to construct a new economic institutions which are supposed to maintain the livelihood in survival conditions and in accordance with the changes. This research was to explore how economic institution transformation happens and its effect on economic security in coastal fishing communities in Ujung Kulon. The method uses a qualitative approach and the type of research uses a case study research. Results of the research showed coastal fishing communities in Ujung Kulon transformed economic institutions of patronage based morality becomes the norm based market economy. In the era of market economy, patronage remains an alternative economic institutions built to survive the crisis and uncertainty and livelihood fluctuated. The fact is related to economic security, institutional patronage morality in the past to provide security over the fishing economy in crisis situations rather than norm -based patronage institutions of the market economy. In situations where the institution of patronage can not fully function as economic security institutions of fishermen, then to survive on less secure economic situation of fishermen rely on alternative economic relations are provided markets outside patronage

Keywords

Transformation; Fishermen; Patronage; Economic Security

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