The Role of Social Cohesion to Reduce Social Conflict in Tourist Destination Area

Suzanna Ratih Sari, Nindyo Suwarno, Windu Nuryanti, Diananta Diananta

Abstract

There are some concerns that tourism development may result in the losing of cultural identity including social cohesion of local people. This research gives different evidencees. The research found that people in Borobudur maintain their traditional value to reduce social conflict. Through direct interaction between tourists and Borobudur people, many of traditional values including social cohesion of the society are eroded. This becomes the fact that each people only tried to collect dollar from tourists as much as possible by ignoring togetherness as traditional principle of their live. This may create disharmony among the society. To eliminate this gap, people tried to tighten the relationship through re-empowering traditional social cohesion called guyub and gotong-royong. It is expected that integrity and cohesiveness in a social structure could always be maintained. Along with this, satisfying and maintaining at least the traditional social cohesions of destination community is vital to reduce social conflict.

Ada beberapa kekhawatiran bahwa pengembangan pariwisata dapat menyebabkan daerah tujuan wisata kehilangan identitas budaya mereka termasuk kohesi sosial masyarakat. Penelitian ini dilakukan secara kualitatif dengan menggunakan metode studi kasus. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa masyarakat Borobudur sangat peduli terhadap nilai-nilai tradisional untuk mengatasi masalah yang dimunculkan pariwisata. Melalui interaksi langsung antara wisatawan dan masyarakat sebagai host tujuan wisata, banyak nilai-nilai tradisional termasuk guyub sebagai kohesi sosial masyarakat yang terkikis. Hal ini menjadi fakta bahwa setiap orang memikirkan diri sendiri mencoba untuk mengumpulkan dollar dari wisatawan sebanyak mungkin dengan mengabaikan kebersamaan/guyub sebagai prinsip dalam hubungan sosial mereka. Hal ini dapat membuat ketidakharmonisan di antara masyarakat. Untuk menghilangkan kesenjangan ini, orang mencoba mempererat tali silaturahmi dengan memberdayakan kembali kohesi sosial yang disebut guyub dan gotong-royong. Diharapkan integritas dan kekompakan dalam struktur sosial dapat selalu dipertahankan. Seiring dengan ini, mempertahankan peran kohesi sosial tradisional dari masyarakat di daerah tujuan wisata sangat penting untuk mengurangi konflik sosial.

Keywords

Tourism activities, Social cohesion, Social conflict

Full Text:

PDF

References

Bintarto, R. 1980. Gotong-Royong : Suatu Karakteristik Bangsa Indonesia. Surabaya : PT. Bina Ilmu

Council of Europe. 2008. Report of the High Level Task Force on Social Cohesion in the 21st century.

Coser, L. 1964. The Functions of Social Conflict: An Examination of the Concept of Social Conflict and Its Use in Empirical Sociological Research, New York: The Free Press

Diekmann A, Preisendrfer P. Green and greenback 2003. The behavioral effects of environmental attitudes in low-cost and high-cost situations.Rationality and Society.

Fitriyani, R. 2012. Peranan Paguyuban Tionghoa Purbalingga Dalam Pelestarian Tradisi Cap Go Mehperanan Paguyuban Tionghoa Purbalingga Dalam Pelestarian Tradisi Cap Go Meh, Jurnal Komunitas, 4(2)

House of Commons. 2004. available at:http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200304/cmselect/cmodpm/45/45.pdf

IABD. 2006. Social cohesion in Latin America and the Caribbean - Analysis, action and coordination. Washington D.C.

Karamoy, A, Gillan D and Attashendartini H. 1983. Community Based Delivery of Social Services in Indonesia: Case Study in Kampung Kebon Kosong. Jakarta: International Development Research Centre in Cooperativeeration with The Institute for Social and Economic Research, Education and Information.

Koentjaraningrat. 1985. Kebudayaan, Mentalitas, dan Pembangunan.Jakarta: Gramedia.

Maxwell, J. 1996. Social dimensions of economic growth. Eric John Hanson Memorial Lecture Series. University of Alberta.

Putnam, R. 1993. Making Democracy Work: Civic Institutions in Modern Italy. Princeton University Press:Princeton.

Ritzen. 2000. Social Cohesion, Public Policy, and Economic Growth: Implications for OECD countries, available at:http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/25/2/1825690.pdf

Soekanto, S. 1982. Teori Sosiologi. Suatu Pengantar. Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada.

Tonnies, F. 1887. Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft: A sociological view of the decay of modern society. Leipzig: Fuess Verlag

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.