SISTEM BUDAYA BAHARI KOMUNITAS NELAYAN LUNGKAK DESA TANJUNG LUAR, LOMBOK TIMUR, NUSA TENGGARA BARAT

Fadly Husain

Abstract

Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui bagaimana sistem pengetahuan komunitas nelayan Lungkak sebagai salah satu kearifan lokal dan modal sosial dalam mengelola dan memanfaatkan sumberdaya laut. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode kualitatif dengan tipe penelitian deskriptif. Lokasi penelitian tersebut ditentukan secara purposive menurut pokok permasalahan penelitian yang dirumuskan. Data kualitatif akan dikumpulkan melalui wawancara mendalam (In-depth Interview) dan pengamatan terlibat (observation participation). Dalam penelitian ini pengolahan dan analisis data dilakukan secara bersamaan dalam sebuah proses yang dilakukan secara terus menerus sejak pengumpulan data dilakukan khususnya dalam proses pengorganisasian, pemilihan, dan kategorisasi antar data dalam bentuk uraian naratif atau thick description. Komunitas nelayan Lungkak mempunyai kearifan lokal berupa sistem pengetahuan tentang pengelolaan dan pemanfaatan sumberdaya laut. Sistem pengetahuan ini berupa pengetahuan tentang biota laut bernilai ekonomi, pengetahuan tentang tempat penangkapan dan posisi rumah ikan, pengetahuan tentang musim (Pola musim dan waktu-waktu munculnya ikan), pengetahuan tanda-tanda di laut dan di angkasa, pengetahuan tentang lingkungan sosial budaya, sistem keyakinan/kepercayaan (upacara/ritual dan pantangan-pantangan).

The purpose of this study was to determine how knowledge system of fishing community of Lungkak as one of the local knowledge and social capital in managing and utilizing their natural resources. The study was conducted with qualitative methods with the type of descriptive research. The study site is purposively determined according to basic research problems formulation. Qualitative data will be collected through in-depth interview and participation observation. In this study the processing and data analysis carried out simultaneously in a process that is conducted continuously since data collection is done especially in the organizing process, selection, and categorization between data in the form of thick description or narrative description. Fishing community of Lungkak has a system of local knowledge in management and utilization of marine resources. Knowledge system is a knowledge of the economic value of marine life, the knowledge of the location and the location of the house catching fish, the knowledge of the seasons (winter pattern and emergence times of fish), the knowledge of the signs at sea and in space, the knowledge of the socio-cultural environment, system of beliefs (rituals and taboos).

Keywords

maritime culture; lombok island; knowledge system.

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