Local Ecological Knowledge on Forest Clearing: A Case Study of Parak and Rimbo Practices in Simancuang Community, Indonesia

Ferdinal Asmin, Dudung Darusman, Iin Ichwandi, Didik Suharjito

Abstract

Local communities are frequently judged as the main driver of forest degradation and deforestation because of the weak recognition to local ecological knowledge (LEK) or traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). We assessed that it is important to elaborate the attributes of LEK and TEK as a way to describe why and how the local community clears the forest, as well as its relation to local practices, named parak and rimbo. Our research uses case study method to describe the local practices in Simancuang community, Alam Pauh Duo Village, South Solok District, West Sumatra Province. We conducted unstructured interviews, observations, and documents selection which were analyzed through categorization and codification as well as complemented with history analysis, spatial analysis, and related document analysis. The results showed that Simancuang community knowledge can describe the attributes of LEK and TEK as a unified whole of local knowledge for sustaining their livelihoods. Therefore, the forest clearing by Simancuang people is one of the livelihoods strategies, but they were not the main driver of forest degradation and deforestation in South Solok District.

Keywords

Attributes of LEK and TEK; Livelihoods; Forest Degradation; Deforestation

Full Text:

Fulltext PDF

References

Abdullah, Taufik. 2010. Pengantar. Pp. i-xxxviii in Sengketa Tiada Putus: Matriarkat, Reformisme Agama, dan Kolonialisme di Minangkabau. Edited by Jeffrey Hadler. Jakarta: Freedom Institute.

Agrawal, Arun, Daniel Nepstad, and Ashwini Chhatre. 2011. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 36:37396.

Angelsen, Arild and David Kaimowitz. 1999. Rethinking the Causes of Deforestation: Lessons from Economic Models. The World Bank Research Observer 14(1):7398.

Asmin, Ferdinal. 2015. Pengelolaan Hutan Nagari di Sumatera Barat: Studi Kasus Areal Kelola Hutan Nagari di Jorong Simancuang Provinsi Sumatera Barat. Prosiding Seminar Nasional FMIPA UT Tahun 2015 Jakarta, Universitas Terbuka: 89-112.

Asnan, Gusti. 2002. Transportation on the West Coast of Sumatra in the Nineteenth Century. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 158(4):727-741.

Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Solok Selatan. 2015. Solok Selatan dalam Angka Tahun 2015. Padang Aro: Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Solok Selatan.

Bart, David. 2006. Integrating Local Ecological Knowledge and Manipulative Experiments to Find the Causes of Environmental Change. Front Ecol Environ. 4(10):541546.

Bax, Vincent, Wendy Francesconi, and Marcela Quintero. 2016. Spatial Modeling of Deforestation Processes in the Central Peruvian Amazon. Journal for Nature Conservation 29:7988.

Berkes, Fikret, Johan Colding, and Carl Folke. 2000. Rediscovery of Traditional Ecological Knowledge as Adaptive Management. Ecological Applications 10(5):1251-1262.

Chalmers, Nigel and Christo Fabricius. 2007. Expert and Generalist Local Knowledge about Land-Cover Change on South Africas Wild Coast: Can Local Ecological Knowledge Add Value to Science? Ecology and Society 12(1):10-24.

Chambers, Robert. 1995. Poverty and Livelihoods: Whose Reality Counts? Environment and Urbanization 7(1):173-204.

Chambers, R. and Gordon R. Conway. 1992. Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: Practical Concepts for the 21st Century. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex.

Charnley, Susan, A. Paige Fischer, and Eric T. Jones. 2008. Traditional and Local Ecological Knowledge about Forest Biodiversity in the Pacific Northwest. Portland: US Department of Agriculture.

Colfer, Carol J. Pierce, Dan W. Gill, and Fahmuddin Agus. 1988. An Indigenous Agricultural Model from West Sumatra: A Source of Scientific Insight. Agricultural Systems 26:191-209.

Colombijn, Freek. 2005. A moving history of Middle Sumatra, 16001870. Modern Asian Studies 39(1):138.

Davis, Anthony and John R. Wagner. 2003. Who Knows? On the Importance of Identifying "Experts" when Researching Local Ecological Knowledge. Human Ecology 31(3):463-489.

Ellis, Edward A. and Luciana Porter-Bolland. 2008. Is Community-Based Forest Management More Effective than Protected Areas? A Comparison of Land Use/Land Cover Change in Two Neighboring Study Areas of the Central Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management 256:19711983.

Fatimah, Siti. 2008. Mencermati Perubahan Sosial Masyarakat Minangkabau melalui Novel Tamu Karya Wisran Hadi. Humaniora 20(3):278-285.

Folke, Carl. 2006. Resilience: The Emergence of a Perspective for Social-Ecological Systems Analyses. Global Environmental Change 16:253267.

Galinato, Gregmar I. and Suzette P. Galinato. 2016. The Effects of Government Spending on Deforestation due to Agricultural Land Expansion and CO2 Related Emissions. Ecological Economics 122:4353.

Gani, Erizal. 2009. Kajian terhadap Landasan Filosofi Pantun Minangkabau. Jurnal Bahasa dan Seni 10(1):1-10.

Gmez-Baggethun, Erik, Esteve Corbera, and Victoria Reyes-Garca. 2013. Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Global Environmental Change: Research Findings and Policy Implications. Ecology and Society 18(4):72-79.

Hadler, Jeffrey. 2010. Sengketa Tiada Putus: Matriarkat, Reformisme Agama, dan Kolonialisme di Minangkabau. Jakarta: Freedom Institute.

Hamzah, Didik Suharjito, and Istomo. 2015. Efektifitas Kelembagaan Lokal dalam Pengelolaan Sumber Daya Hutan pada Masyarakat Nagari Simanau, Kabupaten Solok. Risalah Kebijakan Pertanian dan Lingkungan 2(2):116-127.

Hosonuma, Noriko, Martin Herold, Veronique de Sy, Ruth S. de Fries, Maria Brockhaus, Louis Verchot, Arild Angelsen, and Erika Romijn. 2012. An Assessment of Deforestation and Forest Degradation Drivers in Developing Countries. Environ. Res. Lett. 7:1-12.

Houde, Nicolas. 2007. The Six Faces of Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Challenges and Opportunities for Canadian Co-Management Arrangements. Ecology and Society 12(2):34-40.

Jarosz, Lucy. 1993. Defining and Explaining Tropical Deforestation: Shifting Cultivation and Population Growth in Colonial Madagascar (1896-1940). Economic Geography 69(4):366-379.

Junus, Umar. 1984. Kaba dan Sistem Sosial Minangkabau: Suatu Problematika Sosiologi Sastra. Jakarta: PN Balai Pustaka.

Kahn, Joel S. 1980. Minangkabau Social Formations: Indonesia Peasants and the World Economy. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kahn, Joel S. 1984. Peasant Political Conciousness in West Sumatra: A Reanalysis of the Communist Uprising of 1927. Senri Ethnological Studies 13:293-325.

Kaimowitz, David. 2003. Forest Law Enforcement and Rural Livelihoods. International Forestry Review 5(3): 199-210.

Kissinger, Gabrielle, Martin Herold, and Victoria de Sy. 2012. Drivers of Deforestation and Forest Degradation: A Synthesis Report for REDD+ Policymakers. Vancouver: Lexeme Consulting.

Kull, Christian A. 2000. Deforestation, Erosion, and Fire: Degradation Myths in the Environmental History of Madagascar. Environment and History 6(4): 421-450.

Lauer, Matthew and Shankar Aswani. 2009. Indigenous Ecological Knowledge as Situated Practices: Understanding Fishers Knowledge in the Western Solomon Islands. American Anthropologist 111(3):317329.

Marie, Chloe N., Nicole Sibelet, Michel Dulcire, Minah Rafalimaro, Pascal Danthu, and Stephanie M. Carrie`re. 2009. Taking into Account Local Practices and Indigenous Knowledge in an Emergency Conservation Context in Madagascar. Biodivers Conserv. 18:27592777.

Martial, Tri, Helmi, Nusyirwan Effendi, dan Endry Martius. 2012. Land and tree tenure rights on agroforestry (parak) system at communal land in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Journal of Agricultural Ex-tension and Rural Development 4(19):486-494.

Menzies, Charles R. and Caroline Butler. 2006. Understanding Ecological Knowledge. Pp.1-17 in Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Natural Resource Management. Edited by Charles R. Menzies. London: University of Nebraska.

Mulyanto, Lukman and I Nengah Surati Jaya. 2004. Analisis Spasial Degradasi Hutan dan Deforestasi: Studi Kasus di PT. Duta Maju Timber, Sumatera Barat. Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika X(1):29-42.

Murniati, D.P. Garrity, and A. Ng Gintings. 2001. The Contribution of Agroforestry Systems to Reducing Farmers Dependence on the Resources of Adjacent National Parks: A Case Study from Sumatra, Indonesia. Agroforestry System 52:171-184.

Navis, Ali Akbar. 2015. Alam Terkembang Jadi Guru: Adat dan Kebudayaan Minangkabau. Padang: Penerbit Grafika Jaya Sumbar.

Nonaka, Ikujiro, Georg von Krogh, and Sven Voelpel. 2006. Organizational Knowledge Creation Theory: Evolutionary Paths and Future Advances. Organization Studies 27(8):1179-1208.

Nonaka, Ikujiro and Ryoko Toyama. 2007. Why Do Firms Differ? The Theory of the Knowledge-Creating Firm. Pp. 13-31 in Knowledge Creation and Management: New Challenges for Managers. Edited by Kazuo Ichijo and Ikujiro Nonaka. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

Nursidah, Bramasto Nugroho, Dudung Darusman, Omo Rusdiana, and Yuzirwan Rasyid. 2012. Pengembangan Institusi untuk Membangun Aksi Kolektif Lokal dalam Pengelolaan Hutan Kawasan Lindung SWP DAS Arau, Sumatera Barat. JMHT XVIII(1):1830.

Nygren, Anja. 2000. Development Discourses and Peasant-Forest Relations: Natural Resource Utilization as Social Process. Development and Change 31:11-34.

Oki, Akira. 1977. Social Change in the West Sumatran Village: 1908-1945. Canberra: Australian National University.

Oki, Akira. 1984. The Dynamics of Subsistence Economy in West Sumatra. Senri Ethnological Studies 13:267-291.

Otsuka, Masahiro. 2000. Challenges to Land Use Intensification under Commercialization of Local Farming Systems: A Case from West Sumatra, Indonesia. TROPICS 9(4):309-322.

Otsuka , Keijiro, S. Suyanto, Tetsushi Sonobe, and Thomas P. Tomich. 2001. Evolution of Land Tenure Institutions and Development of Agroforestry: Evidence from Customary Land Areas of Sumatra. Agricultural Economics 25:85-101.

Pelling, Mark and Chris High. 2005. Understanding adaptation: What can social capital offer assessments of adaptive capacity? Global Environmental Change 15:308319.

Salahodjaev, Raufhon. 2016. Intelligence and Deforestation: International Data. Forest Policy and Economics 63:2027.

Sheil, Douglas and Sven Wunder. 2002. The Value of Tropical Forest to Local Communities: Complications, Caveats, and Cautions. Conservation Ecology 6(2):9-24.

Smit, Barry, Ian Burton, Richard J.T. Klein, and J. Wandel. 2000. An Anatomy of Adaptation to Climate Change and Variability. Climatic Change 45:223251.

Sumarmi, S. 2015. Local Wisdom of Osing People in Conserving Water Resources. Jurnal Komunitas 7(1):43-51.

Weatherley-Singh, Janice and Aarti Gupta. 2015. Drivers of Deforestation and REDD+ Benefit-Sharing: A Meta-Analysis of the (Missing) Link. Environmental Science & Policy 54:97105.

van der Hoff, Richard, Raoni Rajo, Pieter Leroy, and Daan Boezeman. 2015. The Parallel Materialization of REDD+ Implementation Discourses in Brazil. Forest Policy and Economics 55: 3745.

von Benda-Beckmann, F. 1979. Property in Social Continuity: Continuity and Change in the Maintenance of Property Relationships through Time in Minangkabau, West Sumatera. Springer-Science+Business Media, B.V.

von Benda-Beckmann, Franz and Keebet von Benda-Beckmann. 2001. Recreating the Nagari: Decentralization in West Sumatra. Working Paper No.31. Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology.

Warman, Kurnia and Hengki Andora. 2014. Pola Hubungan Hukum dalam Pemanfaatan Tanah Ulayat di Sumatera Barat. Mimbar Hukum 26(3):366-381.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.