KEMAMPUAN RESEPTIF ANAK USIA TIGA TAHUN TERHADAP TINDAK TUTUR DIREKTIF

Yesika Maya Ocktarani

Abstract


Makalah ini menguraikan tentang kompetensi anak usia tiga tahun dalam mempersepsi dan memproduksi tindak tutur direktif baik yang diucapkan secara langsung maupun tidak langsung. Seluruh data yang disajikan, diperoleh melalui observasi langsung terhadap empat anak yang berasal dari keluarga yang memiliki latar belakang sosial ekonomi yang berbeda serta wawancara mendalam kepada guru dan orang tua anak. Data yang berupa tuturan maupun respon tindakan anak, diklasifikasikan berdasar jenis tindak tutur direktifnyasedang data yang berupa informasi dari guru dan orang tua disajikan sebagai gambaran keseharian aktivitas dan lingkungan kebahasaan keluarga si anak. Dari hasil penelitian tampak bahwa bahwa anak usia tiga tahun telah memiliki kompetensi dalam TTD. Kemampuan anak mempersepsi tindak tutur mewujud dalam respon verbal maupun tindakan terhadap tuturan orang lain. Sementara kemampuan memproduksi TTD juga sudah mulai terlihat pada kemampuan menggunakan tuturan langsung maupun tidak langsung, meskipun dalam bentuk yang sederhana.Kemampuan tersebut tidak lepas dari dukungan lingkungan kebahasaan yang dimiliki anak berupa stimulasi verbal seperti ajakan berbicara dan pujian yang di dapat dari rumah maupun sekolah.

This paper is aimed to give perspective about childrens pragmatic competence particularly on their performance in Directive Speech Acts (DSA) and also to describe their linguistic environment which supports their pragmatic performance.Direct observation is used in order to get data naturally and it is also completed by indepth-interview with childrens parents and teachers. Childrens responses as the unit of analysis are classified based on the type of responses toward DSA,whereas the information from parents and teachers is used to describe child environment. The result shows that 3-year-old children have had receptive ability towards DSA. They ability in understanding DSA, which formed in direct and indirect speech, can be seen through their responses to ones DSA, both verbally and non-verbally. In other hand, they also have ability to produce DSA, although still in simple utterances. They can use both direct and indirect form of DSA to express their intention. Another result of this research is that children should have linguistic environment to stimulate their ability in using language as tools of communication. The more children interact verbally with a speech community, the better their pragmatic competence will be.


Keywords


speech receptive, Directive Speech Acts, three-year-old children, linguistic environment

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