Efek Olahraga Ringan Pada Fungsi Imunitas Terhadap Mikroba Patogen : Infeksi Virus Dengue

Dyah Mahendrasari Sukendra

Abstract


Imunitas atau kekebalan pada tubuh manusia merupakan kemampuan tubuh untuk melawan berbagai mikroba patogen, misalnya virus dengue penyebab penyakit DBD. Kecenderungan anak-anak terhadap gadget  yang terkoneksi internet, membuat anak-anak lebih suka bermain dengan gadget. Sehingga muncul kecenderungan anak hanya diam dan kurang beraktivitas. Tubuh yang cenderung diam dan kurang beraktivitas dapat berpengaruh pada fungsi kekebalan tubuh. Aktivitas latihan fisik ringan lebih bermanfaat pada fungsi imunitas bila dibanding hanya melakukan aktivitas berupa duduk/tidak melakukan kegiatan apapun. Kekebalan tubuh dapat mudah ditingkatkan dengan melakukan latihan fisik/olahraga juga istirahat serta tidur cukup. Peningkatan jumlah leukosit dalam sirkulasi darah (utamanya limposit dan neutrofil) serta trombosit, dengan melakukan latihan fisik/olahraga ringan dipengaruh oleh intensitas dan durasi latihan. Terjadi pula peningkatan konsentrasi plasma dari berbagai substansi yang dikenal dengan efek fungsi leukosit, termasuk sitokin pada peradangan, seperti TNF-α, makrofag inflamatori protein-1, IL-1β; anti-inflamator sitokin IL-6, IL-10, dan IL-1-reseptor antagonist (IL-1ra); serta peningkatan kadar protein, termasuk C-reaktif protein (CRP). Mekanisme kenaikan atau penurunan imun saat latihan fisik/olahraga dapat memberikan manfaat positif bagi kesehatan dalam jangka panjang, hal ini berkaitan dengan pertahanan tubuh terhadap infeksi penyakit. Sehingga jika terjadi  infeksi mikroba patogen yaitu virus dengue, maka tubuh mampu melakukan pencegahan  infeksi virus dengue ke dalam tubuh.

Keywords


Imunitas, latihan fisik, olahraga, mikroba patogen, virus dengue

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15294/miki.v5i2.7890

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