PEASANT ECONOMY IN MALAYSIA: THE ADVENT OF CAPITALISM AND THE EXPANSION OF MONEY ECONOMY INTO AGRICULTURE IN COLONIAL MALAYA

A Rahman Tang Abdullah, Fazli Abd Hamid

Abstract

This paper examines the advent of capitalism in rural economy by using the commercialization of the peasant economy in colonial Malaya period. It reflects the historical development with reference to the increase of money economy within the society who was mostly the peasants. It means that mostly all means of transaction exchanges were increasingly conducted in monetary form. Following this pattern, this phenomenon is applied to the years between 1850 and 1941 in Malaya as it was signified by the transition from traditional to modern orientation in the economic aspects of the Malay society with special attention to peasant community. Such economic changes that were manifested by the increase of money economy can be seen in a labour utilization and the change in land ownership, the commercial orientation in paddy cultivation, agricultural credit facilities and the penetration of commercialism in the Malay society as a whole. 

 

Makalah ini meneliti kemunculan kapitalisme dalam ekonomi pedesaan dengan menggunakan komersialisasi ekonomi petani pada masa kolonial Malaya. Ini men-cerminkan perkembangan historis dengan mengacu pada peningkatan ekonomi uang di masyarakat yang kebanyakan adalah petani. Artinya, kebanyakan sarana pertukaran transaksi semakin banyak dilakukan dalam bentuk moneter. Mengikuti pola ini, fenomena ini diterapkan pada tahun-tahun antara tahun 1850 dan 1941 di Malaya karena ditandai dengan transisi dari orientasi tradisional ke modern dalam aspek ekonomi masyarakat Melayu dengan perhatian khusus pada masyarakat petani. Perubahan ekonomi seperti itu yang dimanifestasikan oleh peningkatan ekonomi uang dapat dilihat pada pemanfaatan tenaga kerja dan perubahan kepemilikan tanah, orientasi komersial dalam penanaman padi, fasilitas kredit pertanian dan penetrasi komersialisme dalam masyarakat Melayu secara keseluruhan.

 

Keywords

Peasant Economy; Capitalism; Money Economy; Malaysia; Colonial Malaya

Full Text:

PDF

References

Abdullah, Ahmad Nazri. 1985. Melayu Dan Tanah. Selangor: Media Intelek.

Agricultural Loan Fund Rules, 24 November 1911. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printing Office, Malaysian Archive.

Ahmad, Sharom. 1984. Tradition and change in a Malay state : a study of the economic and political development of Kedah, 1878-1923. Kuala Lumpur: Council of the M.B.R.A.S.

Bauer, P. T. and B. S. Yamey. 1965. The Economics of Under-Developed Countries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Brown, Rajeswary Ampalavanar. 1994. Capital and Entrepreneurship in Southeast Asia. Hampshire and London: Macmillan Press Ltd.

Buku Daftar Surat Jual-beli, Pajak Gadai dan Hutang 1284-1301H/1867-1884M, the Johor Archive.

Cavendish, A. 1922. Co-operation as Subject for Study in Malaya. Pinang Gazette Press, Penang Branch of the National Archive of Malaysia hereafter known as Penang Archive.

Comninel, George C. 2000. “English Feudalism and the Origins of Capitalism.” The Journal of Peasant Studies, 27(4): 1-53.

Elias, Mohd. Hj. 1980. Tawarikh Datu Bentara Luar. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Ghee, Lim Teck. 1976. Origins of A Colonial Economy: Land and Agriculture in Perak 1874-1897. Pulau Pinang: Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Ghee, Lim Teck. 1977. Peasants and their agricultural economy in colonial Malaya, 1874-1941. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.

Hill, Ronald D. 1983. “The History of Rice Cultivation in Melaka.” In Kernial Singh Sandhu & Paul Wheatley (Eds.). The Transformation of a Malay Capital, c1400-1980. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. Pp. 335-367

Hill, Titos Heslop. 1879. “Reports on Johor.” Singapore: The Johor Branch of the National Archive of Malaysia, Johor Baharu, hereafter referred as the Johor Archive.

Hooker, M.B. (Ed.). 1988. Islam in Southeast Asia, Second impression. Leiden: E.J. Bril.

Hooker, M.B. 1984. Islamic Law in South-East Asia. Singapore: Oxford University Press.

Kocka, Jürgen. 2016. Capitalism: A Short History. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Maxwell, W.E. 1894. Memorandum on the Introduction of Land Code in the Native States in the Malaya Peninsula. Singapore

Milner, A. C. 1995. The Invention of Politics in Colonial Malaya: Contesting Nationalism and the Expansion of the Public Sphere. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nonini, Donald M (Ed). 1992. British Colonial Rule and the Resistance of the Malay Peasantry, 1900-1957. New Heaven: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies.

Report and Proceedings of the Committee appointed by the Chief Secretary, Federated Malay States, to Consider why the System of Small Loans to Native Agriculturalists had Failed in Perak, July 1911. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printing Office, 1912, National Archive of Malaysia hereafter known as Malaysian Archive.

Report on the Advisability of Establishing Agricultural Banks or Co-operative Societies in the Federated Malay States, General Committee of F.M.S. Chamber of Commerce. 1918. Malaysian Archive.

Roff, William R. 1984. Kerjasama Dan Koperasi Di Semenanjung 1910-1941: Petikan dari bahan-bahan terbitan sezaman. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Universiti Malaya.

Sadka, E. 1968. The Protected Malay States 1874-1895. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press.

Singapore and Straits Directory 1910.

Singapore and Straits Directory 1912.

Straits Daily Times, 6 May, 1879.

Surat menyurat Sultan Abdul Hamid No. 2, 1304-1312”H (1884-1895 CE.), Arkib Negara Malaysia Cawangan Kedah, Alor Merah, Kedah, Hereafter known as The Kedah Archive.

Surat-surat tauliah Penghulu dalam daerah Muar 1873 – 1874, J/MB 3, The Johor Archive.

Suryadinata, Leo. 2007. Understanding the Ethnic Chinese in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS).

The Johore Land Enactment of 1910, the Johor Archive

Trocki, C. A. 1975. “The Johor Archives and the Kangchu System.” JMBRAS, 48 (1): 13-50.

Vaggi Gianni and Peter Groenewegen. 2006. A Concise History of Economic Thought from Mercantilism to Monetarism. Houndmills and New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

Wasino & Endah Sri Hartatik. 2017. “Peasant Economy under the Plantation Capitalism (the Study of Peasant Agricultural Plantation in Jawa at the Nineteenth Century to the Beginning of Twentieth Century).” Man in India, 97 (5): 253-271.

Wood, Ellen Meiksins. 2002. The Origin of Capitalism: A Longer View. London and New York: Verso.

Yegar, Moshe. 1975. “The Abolition of Servitude in British Malaya: An Historical Analysis.” Israel Yearbook on Human Rights, Vol. 5.

Yegar, Moshe. 1979. Islam and Islamic Institution in British Malaya. Jerusalem: Hebrew University Press

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.