The Relation of Drug Amount, Comorbidity, Blood Pressure, and Residential Area to Drug-Related-Problems of Hypertension Patients

Fildza Huwaina Fathnin, Ari Yuniastuti, Oktia Woro Kasmini H


Hypertension is a direct cause of various cardiovascular diseases that can cause complications if not controlled. Drug Related Problems (DRPs) are treatment-related problems that can intervene in therapeutic outcomes, one of which is blood pressure. This study analyzed the relationship of factors that influence the case of DRPs in hypertensive patients. This research was an observational quantitative study with a cross-sectional study design conducted by direct interview method to 141 hypertensive prolanis patients in Semarang City Health Center. The instrument used was a questionnaire. The results showed there was a relationship between the number of drugs (p = 0.038), comorbidity (p = 0,000), and blood pressure (p = 0,000) with the case of DRPs. There was no relationship between the area of residence and the case of DRPs (p = 0.569). Multivariate models showed the most influential factors were comorbidity (p = 0,000, OR: 21,689) and blood pressure (p = 0,000, OR: 13,277). The conclusion of this study is comorbidity and blood pressure are the predictors that most influence the case of DRPs in hypertensive patients.

Full Text:



Arini, Y. D., Rahmawati, F., & Andayani, T. M. (2016). Faktor Resiko Kejadian Drug Related Problems Pada Pasien Penyakit Kronis Rawat Jalan di Poliklinik Penyakit Dalam. Jurnal Manajemen Dan Pelayanan Farmasi, 6(2), 83–94.

Bhagavathula, S. A., Meknonnen, B. G., Birarra, K. M., Tekle, T. M. (2017). Assessment of Drug Related Problems and its Associated Factors among Medical Ward Patients in University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study. J Basic Clin Pharma, 8: S016-S021.

Dipiro, J. T., Talbert, G. C., Yee, G. R., Matzke, B. G., & Wells, L. M. P. (2017). Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiology Approach, 10th Edition. Mc-Graw Hill Medical, 6007–6048.

Essayagh, T., Essayagh, M., Rhaffouli, A. E., Khouchoua, M., Kazadi, G. B., Khattabi, A., & Essayagh, S. (2019). Prevalence of uncontrolled blood pressure in Meknes, Morocco, and its associated risk factors in 2017. PLoS ONE, 14(8), 1–16.

Farahdika, A., & Azam, M. (2015). Faktor Risiko yang Berhubungan dengan Penyakit Jantung Koroner pada Usia Dewasa Madya (41-60 Tahun) Studi Kasus di RS Umum Daerah Kota Semarang. Unnes Journal of Public Health, 4(2), 117-123.

Farha, R. A., Basheti, I., Al Ruz, H. A., Alsaleh, A., & AbuRuz, S. (2016). Assessment of drug-related problems and their impact on blood pressure control in patients with hypertension. European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 23(3), 126–130.

Faselis, C., Doumas, M., & Papademetriou, V. (2011). Common secondary causes of resistant hypertension and rational for treatment. International Journal of Hypertension.

Gebreyohannes, E. A., Bhagavathula, A. S., Abebe, T. B., Tefera, Y. G., & Abegaz, T. M. (2019). Adverse effects and non-adherence to antihypertensive medications in University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. Clinical Hypertension, 25(1), 1–9.

Greeshma, M., Lincy, S., Maheswari, E., Tharanath, S., & Viswam, S. (2018). Identification of drug related problems by clinical pharmacist in prescriptions with polypharmacy: A prospective interventional study. Journal of Young Pharmacists, 10(4), 460–465.

Kementerian Kesehatan RI Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan. (2013). Hasil Utama Riset Kesehatan Dasar. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, 1-306.

Kementerian Kesehatan RI Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan. (2018). Hasil Utama Riset Kesehatan Dasar. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, 1-100.

Kementerian Kesehatan RI. (2016). Data Dasar Puskesmas. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, 1-169.

Kementerian Kesehatan RI. (2019). Permenkes No. 43 Tahun 2019 tentang Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, 1-168.

Kumar, K. A. V., & Nagaraju, B. (2018). General Guidelines to Minimize Drug Interactions in The Treatment of Hypertension and Dyslipidemia in Diabetics. International Journal of Pharmacology & Toxicology. 7(2), 45-48.

Kuruvilla, M. E., & Sanan, N. (2018). Amlodipine-induced angioedema: An unusual complication of a common medication. Allergy & Rhinology, 9, 215265671876413.

Lohmeier, T. E., & Iliescu, R. (2015). The baroreflex as a long-term controller of arterial pressure. Physiology, 30(2), 148–158.

Magnabosco, P., Teraoka, E. C., De Oliveira, E. M., Felipe, E. A., Freitas, D., & Marchi-Alves, L. M. (2015). Comparative analysis of non-adherence to medication treatment for systemic arterial hypertension in city and village populations. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem, 23(1), 20–27.

Mil, J. W. F. van, Horvat, N., & Westerlund, T. (2017). Classification for Drug related problems © 2003-2017. ‘The PCNE Classification ,’ V 8.01, 1–10.

Niriayo, Y. L., Kumela, K., Kassa, T. D., & Angamo, M. T. (2018). Drug therapy problems and contributing factors in the management of heart failure patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. PLoS ONE, 13(10), 1–14.

Rajati, F., Hamzeh, B., Pasdar, Y., Safari, R., Moradinazar, M., Shakiba, E., Najafi, F. (2019). Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and their determinants: Results from the first cohort of non-communicable diseases in a Kurdish settlement. Scientific Reports, 9(1), 1–10.

Rama, P., Jose, E., Paul, J. M., Keerthana, R., & V, G. R. (2020). Evaluation of Drug use Pattern and Behavior in Rural and Urban Population. 13(1), 57–62.

Rasajati, Q. P., Raharjo, B. B., Ningrum, D. N. A. (2015). Faktor-Faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Kepatuhan Pengobatan pada Penderita Hipertensi di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Kedungmundu Kota Semarang. Unnes Journal of Public Health, 4(3), 16-23.

Song, J., Sheng, C. S., Huang, Q. F., Li, L. H., Ma, C. S., Guo, X. H., … Wang, J. G. (2016). Management of hypertension and diabetes mellitus by cardiovascular and endocrine physicians: A China registry. Journal of Hypertension, 34(8), 1648–1653.

Supraptia, B. (2014). Permasalahan Terkait Obat Antihipertensi pada Pasien Usia Lanjut di Poli Geriatri RSUD Dr.Soetomo Surabaya. Jurnal Farmasi Dan Ilmu Kefarmasian Indonesia, 1(2), 36–41.

Tasaka, Y., Tanaka, A., Yasunaga, D., Asakawa, T., Araki, H., & Tanaka, M. (2018). Potential drug-related problems detected by routine pharmaceutical interventions: safety and economic contributions made by hospital pharmacists in Japan. Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences, 4(1), 1–11.

Tientcheu, D., Ayers, C., Das, S. R., McGuire, D. K., De Lemos, J. A., Khera, A., Vongpatanasin, W. (2015). Target organ complications and cardiovascular events associated with masked hypertension and white-coat hypertension: Analysis from the Dallas Heart Study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 66(20), 2159–2169.

Zaman, H., & Fun Wee, H. (2013). Drug related problems in type 2 diabetes patients with hypertension: A cross-sectional retrospective study. BMC Endocrine Disorders, 13(1), 1.


  • There are currently no refbacks.