New Age of Indonesian Local Tourism Development: Community Bonding, Youth Work, and Selling Tourism

Pajar Hatma Indra Jaya(1), Ahmad Izudin(2), Rahadiyand Aditya(3),

(1) UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta
(2) UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogayakarta
(3) UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta


This article explores why and how youth can build community bonds in the new era of rural development in Indonesia that produces local works in the form of tourist sales products. This article uses qualitative methods through a case study approach. The research was conducted in Balkondes Wringin Putih. Starting from individual unrest into community bonds that produce youth solidity, the village succeeded in developing tourist destinations in special economic areas based on tourism. When tourism development programs become the country’s priority, youth through the provision of village tour packages can create new jobs and increase rural economic productivity. The community ties and administration in the village’s growth, resulting from the ruralization process, are contextualised in the macro-political structure of the new age of Indonesian rural development, in fact, able to develop youth-based economic resilience. As empirical research to understand the development of new rural tourism, this study learns from the practices in Balkondes about a relational view of the ever-changing mechanisms of community bonding in the modern world.


Youth Work, Selling Tourism, Community Bonding, Indonesian Rural Development

Full Text:



Afandi, A. et al. (2014) ‘Analysis of Sustainable Tourism Livelihoods in Batu ( East Java , Indonesia ): SLFT Approach ( Sustainable Livelihood Framework for Tourism )’, Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 5(10), pp. 148–157.

Andiyan, A. and Cardiah, T. (2021) ‘Application of contemporary architecture in the transfer hub high land borobudur building’, Civil Engineering and Architecture, 9(7), pp. 2353–2361. doi: 10.13189/cea.2021.090722.

Anggraini, D. and Riyanto (2017) ‘Analisis Hubungan Komplementer dan Kompetisi antar Destinasi Pariwisata (Studi Kasus: 10 Destinasi Pariwisata Prioritas di Indonesia)’, Jurnal Kebijakan Ekonomi, 12(2), pp. 224–252.

Anita, D. (2020) ‘Strategi Pemberdayaan Masyarakat dalam Pengembangan Pembangunan Pedesaan’, Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Scholastic, 4(2), pp. 29–33. doi: 10.36057/jips.v4i2.409.

Astawa, I. P., Triyuni, N. N. and Santosa, I. D. M. C. (2018) ‘Sustainable tourism and harmonious culture: A case study of cultic model at village tourism’, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 953(1). doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/953/1/012057.

Ateljevic, I. and Doorne, S. (2003) ‘Culture, economy and tourism commodities: Social relations of production and consumption’, Tourist Studies, 3(2), pp. 123–141. doi: 10.1177/1468797603041629.

Barbič, A. (1998) ‘Cultural identity of the Slovenian countryside: Territorial integrity and cultural diversity from the perspective of rural communities’, Agriculture and Human Values, 15(3), pp. 253–265. doi: 10.1023/A:1007452715008.

Bečević, Z. and Dahlstedt, M. (2021) ‘On the margins of citizenship: youth participation and youth exclusion in times of neoliberal urbanism’, Journal of Youth Studies, 0(0), pp. 1–18. doi: 10.1080/13676261.2021.1886261.

Blaikie, P. M. et al. (1994) At Risk: Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability, and Disasters. New York: Routledge.

Blamey, R. K. (2001) ‘Principles of ecotourism’, in Weaver, D. B. (ed.) The encyclopedia of ecotourism. New York: CABI Publishing.

Bonilla-Quijada, M., Tugores-Ques, J. and Arriaga, J. L. O. (2021) ‘Promotion of urban tourism: insights into user engagement on social media’, Inf Technol Tourism, 23, pp. 611–632. doi: 10.1007/s40558-021-00213-6.

BPS (2021) Jumlah Devisa Sektor Pariwisata (Miliar US $), 2016-2018. Jakarta.

Bulilan, C. M. R. and Bulilan, C. M. R. (2021) ‘From Governing to Selling Tourism: Changing Role of Local Government in the Tourism Development of Bohol, Philippines’, Southeast Asian Studies, 10(2), pp. 273–293. doi: 10.20495/seas.10.2.

Bunten, A. C. (2008) ‘Sharing culture or selling out?: Developing the commodified persona in the heritage industry’, American Ethnologist, 35(3), pp. 380–395. doi: 10.1111/j.1548-1425.2008.00041.x.

Campbell, P. et al. (2021) ‘Youth resilience and training programmes in Australia and the US: Beyond neoliberal social therapeutics’, Journal of Youth Studies, 0(0), pp. 1–17. doi: 10.1080/13676261.2021.2010686.

Chambers, R. and Conway, R. (1992) Sustainable rural livelihoods: Practical concepts for the 21st Century, IDS Discussion Paper.

Dahles, H., Prabawa, T. S. and Koning, J. (2020) ‘Local tourism businesses in Indonesia: A pathway to crisis-resilient development?’, Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies, 13(1), pp. 17–33. doi: 10.14764/10.ASEAS-0027.

Dai, H. (2013) ‘Social inequality in a bonded community: Community ties and villager resistance in a Chinese Township’, Social Service Review, 87(2), pp. 269–291. doi: 10.1086/670520.

Dai, H. (2016) ‘From personal ties to village welfare: Changing community bonding in post-socialist rural China’, Community Development Journal, 51(4), pp. 517–533. doi: 10.1093/cdj/bsv048.

Donohoe, H. M. and Needham, R. D. (2006) ‘Ecotourism: The Evolving Contemporary Definition’, Journal of Ecotourism, 5(3), pp. 194–210.

Farrugia, D. (2021) ‘Youth, work and global capitalism: new directions’, Journal of Youth Studies, 24(3), pp. 372–387. doi: 10.1080/13676261.2020.1729965.

Firman, T., Kombaitan, B. and Pradono, P. (2007) ‘The dynamics of Indonesia’s urbanisation, 1980–2006’, Urban Policy and Research, 25(4), pp. 433–454. doi: 10.1080/08111140701540752.

Gill, P. et al. (2008) ‘Methods of data collection in qualitative research: interviews and focus groups’, British dental journal, 204(6), pp. 291–295.

Gössling, S., Scott, D. and Hall, C. M. (2020) ‘Pandemics, tourism and global change: a rapid assessment of COVID-19’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, pp. 1–20. doi: 10.1080/09669582.2020.1758708.

De Haan, L. J. (2000) ‘Globalization, localization and sustainable livelihood’, Sociologia Ruralis, 40(3), pp. 339–365. doi: 10.1111/1467-9523.00152.

Haryana, A. (2020) ‘Economic and Welfare Impacts of Indonesia’s Tourism Sector’, Jurnal Perencanaan Pembangunan: The Indonesian Journal of Development Planning, 4(3), pp. 300–311. doi: 10.36574/jpp.v4i3.127.

Jajoo, D. and Malu, S. K. (2014) Resarch Methodology.

Kemenparekraf (2020) Rencana Strategis KEMENPAREKRAF/BAPAREKRAF 2020-2024, Kemenparekraf. Jakarta.

Keyim, P. (2018) ‘Tourism Collaborative Governance and Rural Community Development in Finland: The Case of Vuonislahti’, Journal of Travel Research, 57(4), pp. 483–494. doi: 10.1177/0047287517701858.

Khartishvili, L. et al. (2020) ‘Issues with Applying the Concept of Community-Based Tourism in the Caucasus’, Mountain Research and Development, 40(1), pp. R11–R20. doi: 10.1659/MRD-JOURNAL-D-19-00071.1.

Kia, Z. (2021) ‘Ecotourism in Indonesia: Local Community Involvement and The Affecting Factors’, Journal of Governance and Public Policy, 8(2), p. LAYOUTING. doi: 10.18196/jgpp.v8i2.10789.

Lenao, M. (2015) ‘Challenges facing community-based cultural tourism development at Lekhubu Island, Botswana: a comparative analysis’, Current Issues in Tourism, 18(6), pp. 579–594. doi: 10.1080/13683500.2013.827158.

Lindawati, L., Damayanti, A. and Putri, D. H. (2021) ‘The Potential of Community-Based Nomadic Tourism Development: Insight from Three Case Study in Yogyakarta’, Jurnal Pemberdayaan Masyarakat: Media Pemikiran dan Dakwah Pembangunan, 5(1), pp. 135–162. doi: 10.14421/jpm.2021.051-06.

Luo, S., Furuya, K. and Xie, J. (2021) ‘Impacts and residents’ attitudes to flower-viewing tourism in Chengdu, PR China’, Tourism Recreation Research, 46(4), pp. 516–530. doi: 10.1080/02508281.2020.1818433.

Mahendradhata, Y. (2019) ‘Proceed with caution: Potential challenges and risks of developing healthcare tourism in Indonesia’, Global Public Health, 14(3), pp. 340–350. doi: 10.1080/17441692.2018.1504224.

Maulana, Y. and Ramadanty, S. (2020) ‘Leadership In Rural Tourism: Case Study Wangun Lestari Village, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia’, Palarch’s Journal Of Archaeology Of Egypt/Egyptology, 17(7), pp. 3081–3093.

Menahem, G. (2011) ‘The impact of community bonding and bridging social capital on educational performance in Israel’, Urban Education, 46(5), pp. 1100–1130. doi: 10.1177/0042085911400334.

Miles and Huberman (1994) Qualitative Data Analisys. USA: Saga Publication.

Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M. and Saldana, J. (2014) Qualitative Data Analysis A Methods Sourcebook. 3rd edn. The USA: Sage Publications.

Mills, G. G. (1989) ‘Youth and community development in Papua New Guinea’, Community Development Journal, 24(4), pp. 256–263. doi: 10.1093/cdj/24.4.256.

Mura, P. and Sharif, S. P. (2015) ‘Exploring rural tourism and sustainability in Southeast Asia through the lenses of official tourism websites: A benchmarking exercise’, Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism ThemesWorldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 7(1), pp. 440–452. doi: 10.1108/WHATT-06-2015-0025.

Mutiono, M. (2020) ‘Developing of Integrative Ecotourism in Waifoi Village, Papua Barat, Indonesia’, Jurnal Pemberdayaan Masyarakat: Media Pemikiran dan Dakwah Pembangunan, 4(2), pp. 345–366. doi: 10.14421/jpm.2020.04-06.

Nilan, P. (2021) ‘Muslim youth environmentalists in Indonesia’, Journal of Youth Studies, 24(7), pp. 925–940. doi: 10.1080/13676261.2020.1782864.

Permatasari, P. et al. (2021) ‘The village fund program in indonesia: Measuring the effectiveness and alignment to sustainable development goals’, Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(21). doi: 10.3390/su132112294.

Poon, S. (2020) ‘Symbolic Resistance: Tradition in Batik Transitions Sustain Beauty, Cultural Heritage and Status in the Era of Modernity’, World Journal of Social Science, 7(2). doi: 10.5430/wjss.v7n2p1.

Pranadji, T., Wahida and Anugrah, I. S. (2021) ‘Turning point the concept of rural development in Indonesia from top-down to bottom-up strategy’, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 892(1), p. 012079. doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/892/1/012079.

Purnomo, S. et al. (2020) ‘Empowerment model for sustainable tourism village in an emerging country’, Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 7(2), pp. 261–270. doi: 10.13106/jafeb.2020.vol7.no2.261.

Putra, H. W. S. et al. (2019) ‘Community Participation in Development of Ecotourism in Taman Beach, Pacitan District’, Journal of Indonesian Tourism and Development Studies, 7(2), pp. 91–99. doi: 10.21776/ub.jitode.2019.07.02.05.

Rachmawatie, D. et al. (2020) ‘Empowerment of rural community through the development of renewable electricity’, Jurnal Perspektif Pembiayaan dan Pembangunan Daerah, 8(2), pp. 139–154. doi: 10.22437/ppd.v8i2.8077.

Rifandini, R. (2018) ‘Transformation of Post-Authoritarian Rural Development in Indonesia: A Study of Farmer-Breeder Community Development in West Bandung Regency’, MASYARAKAT Jurnal Sosiologi, 23(2), pp. 235–255. doi: 10.7454/MJS.v23i2.9637.

Roseland, M. (2000) ‘Sustainable community development: Integrating environmental, economic, and social objectives’, Progress in Planning, 54(2), pp. 73–132. doi: 10.1016/S0305-9006(00)00003-9.

Roziqin, A. and Syarafina, Z. (2021) ‘Tourism village development study: Lesson learned from Flory Village, Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta’, Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik, 34(2), pp. 173–183. doi: 10.20473/mkp.v34i22021.173-183.

Sariffuddin, S., Wahyono, H. and Brotosunaryo, B. (2017) ‘Street Vendors Hypergrowth: Consequence of Uncontrolled Urbanization In Semarang City’, KOMUNITAS: International Journal of Indonesian Society and Culture, 9(1), pp. 81–91. doi: 10.15294/komunitas.v9i1.8497.

Sen, A. (1999) Development as Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Simanjuntak, M. and Manalu, S. A. (2019) ‘Innovative Business Models in Developing Meat Ecotourism in Toba Samosir’, in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, p. 012197. doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1175/1/012197.

Singgalen, Y. A., Sasongko, G. and Wiloso, P. G. (2019) ‘Ritual capital for rural livelihood and sustainable tourism development in Indonesia’, Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika, 25(2), pp. 115–125. doi: 10.7226/jtfm.25.2.115.

Soedjatmiko (2015) ‘Tourism Development in Indonesia’, Journal of Sports Science, 3(5), pp. 62–68. doi: 10.17265/2332-7839/2015.08.009.

Somaiah, B. C. and Yeoh, B. S. A. (2021) ‘Temporal emotion work, gender and aspirations of left-behind youth in Indonesian migrant-sending villages’, Journal of Youth Studies, 0(0), pp. 1–18. doi: 10.1080/13676261.2021.1952170.

Sullivan, E. M. et al. (2011) ‘“You are taking who?! to a national conference on social policy?”: A place for youth in the social policy life of their communities’, Community Development Journal, 46(4), pp. 511–525. doi: 10.1093/cdj/bsq010.

Sutiyo, S. and Nurdin, I. (2015) ‘Institutional Membership and Rural Development in Indonesia: Case Study of Three Villages in Purbalingga’, KOMUNITAS: International Journal of Indonesian Society and Culture, 7(2), pp. 224–235. doi: 10.15294/komunitas.v7i2.4518.

Ting, S. H. and Wan Ahmad, S. S. (2021) ‘Everyday interactions and political participation of Malaysian youth’, Journal of Youth Studies, 0(0), pp. 1–20. doi: 10.1080/13676261.2021.1923672.

Tomazos, K. and Butler, R. (2010) ‘The volunteer tourist as “hero”’, Current Issues in Tourism, 13(4), pp. 363–380. doi: 10.1080/13683500903038863.

UNWTO (2019) Why Tourism?,

Utami, A. W. and Cramer, L. A. (2020) ‘Political, social, and human capital in the face of climate change: Case of rural Indonesia’, Community Development, 00(00), pp. 1–19. doi: 10.1080/15575330.2020.1804956.

Walpole, M. J. and Goodwin, H. J. (2000) ‘Local economic impacts of dragon tourism in Indonesia’, Annals of Tourism Research, 27(3), pp. 559–576. doi: 10.1016/S0160-7383(99)00088-2.

Waridah, N. (2021) ‘Potency, Participation, and Development: Insights from Sustainable Tourism of Setigi in Sekapuk Village, Indonesia’, Jurnal Pemberdayaan Masyarakat: Media Pemikiran dan Dakwah Pembangunan, 5(1), pp. 105–134. doi: 10.14421/jpm.2021.051-05.

WCED (1987) Our Common Future (Brundtland Report). Oxford.

Wilonoyudho, S. et al. (2017) ‘Urbanization and regional imbalances in Indonesia’, Indonesian Journal of Geography, 49(2), pp. 125–132. doi: 10.22146/ijg.13039.

Xu, K., Zhang, J. and Tian, F. (2017) ‘Community leadership in rural tourism development: A tale of two ancient Chinese villages’, Sustainability, 9(12), p. 2344. doi: 10.3390/su9122344.

Yin, J., Bi, Y. and Ji, Y. (2020) ‘Structure and formation mechanism of China-ASEAN tourism cooperation’, Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(13). doi: 10.3390/su12135440.

Yin, R. K. (2014) Case study research design and methods. 5th ed. California: SAGE Publications.

Yuda, T. K., Damanik, J. and Nurhadi (2020) ‘Examining emerging social policy during COVID-19 in Indonesia and the case for a community-based support system’, Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development, 30(1), pp. 1–10. doi: 10.1080/02185385.2020.1829499.

Zamroni, S. et al. (2015) Desa Mengembangkan Penghidupan Berkelanjutan. Yogyakarta: IRE Yogyakarta.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.