Rainbow: Journal of Literature, Linguistics and Cultural Studies https://journal.unnes.ac.id/sju/index.php/rainbow <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Rainbow</strong>&nbsp;(p-ISSN 2252-6323, e-ISSN 2721-4540) is a biannually open access and peer-reviewed journal in English Literature, Linguistics, and Cultural Studies published by English Department, Languages and Arts Faculty, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia. The journal aims to provide a&nbsp;setting for scholars and researchers around the world to share their experiences and interact in an academic platform. <strong>Rainbow </strong>publishes reports of original empirical studies, theoretical articles, methodological articles, case studies, and book reviews in the view of English Literature, Linguistics, and Cultural Studies.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="http://sinta.ristekdikti.go.id/journals/detail?id=596"><img src="/sju//public/site/images/henrikusjoko/sinta1.png"></a>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="https://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=en&amp;user=T9VDulgAAAAJ"><img src="/sju//public/site/images/henrikusjoko/images2.jpg"></a>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="https://doaj.org/toc/2252-6323?source=%7B%22query%22%3A%7B%22filtered%22%3A%7B%22filter%22%3A%7B%22bool%22%3A%7B%22must%22%3A%5B%7B%22terms%22%3A%7B%22index.issn.exact%22%3A%5B%222252-6323%22%5D%7D%7D%2C%7B%22term%22%3A%7B%22_type%22%3A%22article%22%7D%7D%5D%7D%7D%2C%22query%22%3A%7B%22match_all%22%3A%7B%7D%7D%7D%7D%2C%22size%22%3A100%2C%22_source%22%3A%7B%7D%7D"><img src="/sju//public/site/images/henrikusjoko/doa.jpg"></a>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.15294/rainbow.v8i2"><img src="/sju//public/site/images/henrikusjoko/crossref2.png"></a>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="http://garuda.ristekdikti.go.id/journal/view/14899"><img src="/sju//public/site/images/henrikusjoko/garuda2.png"></a>&nbsp;</p> English Department, Languages and Arts Faculty, Universitas Negeri Semarang en-US Rainbow: Journal of Literature, Linguistics and Cultural Studies 2252-6323 Hope and Fear in Stephen King's "The Mist" https://journal.unnes.ac.id/sju/index.php/rainbow/article/view/33949 <p>Hope and Fear are something that lies in the deep of the human mind that affect how people act. This research is conducted to reveal fear and hope in society as part of human psyche that build its very foundation. The topic of this research is hope and fear in Stephen King’s <em>The Mist</em>. The research instrument uses observation sheets, while the data collection is based on the library research. This is a descriptive qualitative research that used structuralism theory by Levi-Strauss. By using the structuralism theory, the analysis of the study was conducted through binary opposition found in the novel. This research results in several findings as follows: 1) People lose themselves as human when fear constantly breaks them, while hope is the one that can keep them as human even in the hard times. 2) In religion aspect, fear has changed the way people think about God. The disaster, the death, and the monster are said to be God’s will. It shows that the fundamental of belief is changed from blessing life to cursing life. Furthermore, society’s moral has degenerated that they justify the wrong thing as right, and otherwise because they only think about their safety.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Binary Opposition, Fear, Hope, Society, Structuralism</p> Robi Syarip Fatma Hetami ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-29 2019-11-29 8 2 1 14 10.15294/rainbow.v8i2.33949 Self-Actualization in Main Character’s Life Journey in "The Bell Jar" https://journal.unnes.ac.id/sju/index.php/rainbow/article/view/32492 <p>Self-actualization is term that is commonly used in psychology theories. The term can be simply translated as the full realization of someone’s potential or true self. This study was conducted to analyze the life journey of the main character of <em>The Bell Jar </em>in achieving herself-actualization. The purposes of this study are to describe the character of the main character in <em>The Bell Jar</em> and to describe the main character in achieving self-actualization and how it is portrayed in the novel. This study was done using a descriptive qualitative method and using Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs theory and New Criticism theory to explain the main character and her journey in achieving self-actualization in the form of words. The object of the study was the novel <em>The Bell Jar</em> and this study focused on Esther Greenwood as the main character.&nbsp; List of an observational sheet was used as the research instrument and the data was taken through library research. The analysis was conducted by interpreting Esther’s utterances and actions using New Criticism theory to describe Esther’s characterization and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs theory to describe Esther’s self-actualization. The study results showed that Esther’s self-actualization is the results of her being able to fulfill her previous stages both directly and indirectly before reaching self-actualization stage along her life journey.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Characterization, Hierarchy of Human Needs, Life Journey, New Criticism, Self-actualization</p> Muhammad Fadhli Nur Farid Mohamad Ikhwan Rosyidi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-29 2019-11-29 8 2 15 23 10.15294/rainbow.v8i2.32492 Deconstructing the Portrayal of Adults’ Superiority towards Children in Frances Hodgson Burnett’s "A Little Princess" https://journal.unnes.ac.id/sju/index.php/rainbow/article/view/34570 <p>This study discusses how the portrayal of adults’ superiority towards children in the novel <em>A Little Princess </em>by Frances Hodgson Burnett is deconstructed by the work itself. The adults’ superiority is portrayed in the novel, in which the adults are depicted as more superior figure than children. However, the perfect descriptions of the children as portrayed by Sara in the novel show that the hierarchy in child-adult relationship is able to be reversed. This study uses descriptive qualitative method supported by Structuralism’s binary opposition and Derrida’s Deconstruction reading strategy. The aim of this study is to destabilize the novel, <em>A Little Princess</em>, by applying Deconstruction reading strategy. This study shows that the novel deconstructs its portrayal of adults’ superiority towards children. So, by destabilizing the binary opposition in the novel, that is an adult opposes a child, the child-adult hierarchy is reversed.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: adults, children, deconstruction, superiority</p> NUR INAYAH Bambang Purwanto ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 8 2 24 31 10.15294/rainbow.v8i2.34570 The Use of Speech Acts by Native and Non-Native Guests in Ellen Show https://journal.unnes.ac.id/sju/index.php/rainbow/article/view/34357 <p>The aim of the study is to find out the type of illocutionary speech acts that used by native speakers and non-native speakers in Ellen Show.&nbsp; It also analyzes the identifier and the cross-cultural pragmatic background of the speeches. The subjects of the study are BTS as non-native speakers, One Direction and Ellen as native speakers. The study uses qualitative descriptive methods. The result indicated only four types of illocutionary speech acts that found in the videos, representatives, directives, commissive, and expressive. The proposition is dominated by representative’s speech acts with 59.7%, and the second is expressive speech acts with 30.1%. While commissive 5.3% and the last, directives speech acts are 4.9%. The each types of illocutionary speech acts have different identifier. First, expressive speech acts have based of the real situation, giving information, and giving opinion. Second, directives speech acts have direct, request or demand, and suggest or advice. Third, commissive speech acts has expecting future action and promising future action. And the last, expressive speech acts have emotion and attitude. Directives speech acts was not found because Ellen as a host of the show did not change the social status of the guests.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Illocutionary Speech Acts, Native Speakers, Non-native Speakers, Searle</p> Alisha Rahma Putri Hendi Pratama ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 8 2 32 40 10.15294/rainbow.v8i2.34357 Translation Quality of Idiomatic Expressions in "Lenka Kripac’s" Song Lyrics From English into Indonesian https://journal.unnes.ac.id/sju/index.php/rainbow/article/view/34454 <p>This study aims to find out translation quality of idiomatic expressions in Lenka Kripac’s song lyric from English into Indonesian. The objectives of this study are to find out the accuracy, the acceptability, and the readability of the translation of idiomatic expression which are translated in Indonesian. The translation assessment proposed by Nababan (2012). This study was conducted a descriptive qualitative research. Descriptive research is a procedure of problem solving by describing the subject or the object of the study based on the visible facts. Qualitative research does not deal with testing of a theory or hypothesis, but it deals with understanding of theory. The data were obtained by content analysis and questionnaire. The data were obtained by handing out accuracy rating instruments to three expert respondents then acceptability and readability rating instruments to fifteen respondents. The result of this study showed that there 185 data and 86 idioms. The idioms which were classified into six categories by Seidl &amp; McMordie’s theory. There is kind of idiomatic expressions; those are (1) Phrasal Verbs Idiom (2) Prepositional Phrase Idiom (3) Idiom with verbs as keywords (4) Idiom with nouns as keywords (5) Idiom with adjectives as a key (6) Idiomatic pairs. The mostly used idiomatic expression in these songs is a translation by Phrasal Verbs Idiom. Then, in term of accuracy, there (78,74 %) were accurate,&nbsp; (19,46%) were less accurate, and&nbsp; ( 1,8 %) were inaccurate. In the term of acceptability, there were (68,95%) were acceptable, (24,15%) was less acceptable, and (6,9 % ) were unacceptable. In the term of readability, there were (78,2 %) readable, (16,60%) were less readable, and (5,15%) were unreadable.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: acceptability, accuracy, idioms, readability, translation quality</p> Admiati Admiati Rudi Hartono ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 8 2 41 51 10.15294/rainbow.v8i2.34454 Revealing The Meaning of Pilgrim’s Journey for Searching Salvation in Hermann Hesse’s "Siddhartha" https://journal.unnes.ac.id/sju/index.php/rainbow/article/view/34552 <p>This study is the analysis of the character Siddhartha’s pilgrimage journey in the novel entitled <em>Siddhartha</em>. There are three objectives of this study. The first is to describe the conflict between human’s worldly desires and his spiritual quest in Hermann Hesse’s novel, <em>Siddhartha</em>. The second is to explain how Siddhartha’s conflict between his worldly affairs and spiritual journey in view of Gadamer’s hermeneutics. And, the third is to explain how Siddhartha’s worldly and spiritual duality as a revelation of human’s conflict in general. The analysis and the description of the data are provided to find the conclusion. The analysis of this study is using Gadamer’s Hermeneutics theory. The study shows that the main character Siddhartha is searching for salvation through the ordeal life. He learned many teachings from Hinduism, being ascetic Samana, learned Buddha’s teachings, being worldly slave as the courtesan adherent, and finally he finds salvation from the river. In his journey to find salvation, Siddhartha is difficult to find teachings can satisfy him. He got the internal conflict between his worldly and spiritual quest when he became courtesan’s adherent. However, all the inner conflicts that Siddhartha felt have big roles and led him to make the next decision in his life. In the end of Siddhartha’s journey, finally he found salvation. The river has succeeded to change Siddhartha by its voice and “listen” became the key why he gets salvation in his life. Besides, there is the fact that <em>Siddhartha</em>’s story modelled itself on the journey of Siddhartha Gautama the Buddha. Hesse’s <em>Siddhartha </em>was written based on the author’s travel experience in India. The conflict that Hesse portrayed in that story mostly faced by people. In the novel, Hesse characterized Siddhartha as an individual who later found his life wisdom in an act of listening to the voices of nature. Listening means everything for Siddhartha.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Gadamer’s hermeneutics, internal conflict, pilgrim’s journey</p> Yufi Shofiyani Henrikus Joko Yulianto ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 8 2 52 59 10.15294/rainbow.v8i2.34552 The Dilemma of Being American as a Consequence of Ethnic Segregation in Toni Morrison's Beloved https://journal.unnes.ac.id/sju/index.php/rainbow/article/view/33918 <p>Slavery was a central institution in American society and was accepted as normal and applauded as a positive thing by many white Americans. America was full of Negro slaves when there were many injustice actions done by white people to black people. <em>Beloved</em> is a novel written by Toni Morrison in 1987, explores the hardships endured by a former slave woman and her family during the slavery and the Reconstructions eras. This study aims to explain the dilemma experienced by the main character of being American and its correlation between the main character’s dilemma and ethnic segregation by the White Americans against the Afro-Americans as portrayed in <em>Beloved </em>novel. The method used in this study is a qualitative study analyzed by deconstruction theory of Paul de Man. Meanwhile, the method of data analysis is based on the dilemma experienced by African-American people in the novel and its correlation between the dilemma and ethnic segregation. Morrison’s novel shows that the dilemma experienced by the main character in the novel is divided into the episodes of control, gender role, and humanity service. The correlation between the dilemma and ethnic segregation is portrayed through the struggle of Afro-American people fight against the domination of White Americans. In conclusion, ethnic segregation in America creates dilemma for Afro-American or black people and it should be removed to vanish any differentiation and live in harmony.</p> Novia Sekar Ayuningtyas Mohamad Ikhwan Rosyidi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 8 2 60 68 10.15294/rainbow.v8i2.33918 Myth as a Revelation of Spiritual Values for Today’s Human Life Reflected on Sarah H. Bradford’s "Harriet Tubman: The Moses of Her People" https://journal.unnes.ac.id/sju/index.php/rainbow/article/view/33844 <p>America is a country with Christianity as the major religion. It is the fact that Moses in Christian myth has an important role to the religion of this country. The United States President Harry Truman wrote in 1950 that the fundamental basis of the laws of the United States was the Ten Commandments that were given to Moses. America is also known for the country of freedom. Besides, American freedom has a unique historical story which is about slavery. <em>Harriet Tubman: The Moses of Her People</em> novel depicts the journey and struggle of Harriet in liberating African American slaves. This study aims to identify the incorporation of Moses in Christian myth to the story in the novel and its relation to the spiritual values of human’s life in the present time. The method of this study is qualitative study analysis using structuralism method of Claude Levi Strauss and the Study of Myth by Joseph Campbell. Then, the method of data analysis is based on the story in <em>Harriet Tubman: The Moses of Her People</em> novel and Moses in Christian myth. Bradford’s novel tells about the main character named Harriet who became the leader of African American slaves to the Northern America and Canada for freedom. While in Christian myth, Moses was chosen by God to be the leader of Israelites to go from the land of Egypt bondage for freedom. The final finding of this study shows the conflict of the novel, the incorporation of Moses in Christian myth to the story in the novel and shows the Ten Commandments of Christianity influenced the spiritual values by Americans which is also still relevant today. For instance, most Americans are Christian as the values of the First Commandment; Americans commonly regard their society as the freest and best in the world as the value of the Eight Commandment; the right of American constitutional democracy to attempt to “pursue” happiness in their own way as long as they do not infringe upon the rights of others is a result of the Tenth Commandment; Although there are still some transgressions of one or more of the Commandments, there are somehow many other Americans who are still devoted to the Ten Commandments as moral principles in their daily life.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: African-American, Christian myth, Moses, Slavery, Structuralism</p> Ike Alit Triana Henrikus Joko Yulianto ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 8 2 69 74 10.15294/rainbow.v8i2.33844 Ethical Dilemmas as Seen Through the Major Characters Reflected in "The Danish Girl" Movie Screenplay Written by Lucinda Coxon https://journal.unnes.ac.id/sju/index.php/rainbow/article/view/34826 <p>An ethical dilemma is an interesting topic to discuss since it always occurs to us in our daily lives whether we realise it or not. The study is aimed to explain the ethical dilemmas of the major characters in <em>The Danish Girl</em> movie screenplay by Lucinda Coxon. This study used psychoanalytic theory of the tripartite model theory by Sigmund Freud and employed qualitative method. The result was the ethical dilemmas of the major characters occurred before they made a decision in their actions. This study revealed that the ethical dilemma happened to them because they needed to think about the impact of their actions on other people or themselves. It could prevent them from doing or saying inappropriate things which could hurt someone's feelings or harm themselves. Another result in this study was that the ethical dilemmas that happened to the major characters mostly represent ego more than the other two parts of psyche. They could control what they wanted to say or do since they thought about the possible things that could happen to each choice before they made the decision.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Characters, Ethical Dilemma, Movie Screenplay, Psychoanalytic Theory, The Danish Girl</p> Kemala Putri Anggraeni Maria Johana Ari Widayanti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 8 2 75 84 10.15294/rainbow.v8i2.34826 Analysis of Actantial Model in Suzanne Collins’ "The Hunger Games" https://journal.unnes.ac.id/sju/index.php/rainbow/article/view/34207 <p>This study aims to analyze plot structure in Collins’ <em>The Hunger Games</em>. There are several questions that researcher wants to find, what the elements of plot are, how do the elements of plot compose the plot structure of the story, and what kind of plot is applied in the novel. This study is a qualitative analysis by applying A.J. Greimas approach. The data were collected by reading, identifying, interpreting and analyzed using the approach and theories which used in this study by using actants. The result of this study were the elements of plot consist of beginning, problem of the story, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution. To find out the main plot structure, this study classifies the function of each character into six actants, they are sender, receiver, subject, object, helper and opponent. Finally, the researcher concluded what kind of plot and how the ending of the novel is. The plot of the novel is dramatic or cronological plot because the story through in chronological order. In addition, the novel is closed plot because the problem of the story is solved.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Actant, Greimas, Plot, Sructuralism</p> Uliya Dzikriya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 8 2 85 94 10.15294/rainbow.v8i2.34207