Unnes Journal of Public Health 2022-01-31T05:54:19+07:00 Fitri Indrawati Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">Unnes Journal of Public Health is published by Universitas Negeri Semarang (UNNES) in cooperation with the Association of Indonesian Public Health Experts (Ikatan Ahli Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia (IAKMI)). Unnes Journal of Public Health contains articles about health epidemiology, biostatistics, health administration, public health nutrition, environmental health, occupational health and safety, health promotion, reproductive health, maternal and child health, health management, health economics, traditional medicine/treatment for preventive or first aid purposes, public health law/ethics and other related health articles, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. The journal can be used by health practitioners, health caregivers, teachers, students, and people who interested in health issues.</p> Workplace Bullying among Offshore Workers of an Oil and Gas Company 2022-01-31T05:29:05+07:00 Kamto Kamto Sjahrul Meizar Nasri Dadan Erwandi Fatma Lestari Abdul Kadir <p>Workplace bullying is now a psychosocial hazard that has led to deterioration in the productivity of workers, which ultimately leads to the decline in the performance of organizations. This study aimed at examining the correlation between bullying, psychological distress, and satisfaction in life. Respondents involved are offshore workers of an oil and gas company (N = 206) from various entities. Additionally, the respondents were divided into permanent and contract workers, as well as staff and non-staff members recruited using the snowball sampling method. Statistical analysis was performed using the Spearman correlation test with the SPSS software. The results showed a significant association between bullying and psychological distress (r permanent=0.705, r contract=0.548, r staff=0.656, and r non-staff=0.513, p=0.01) and satisfaction with life (r permanent=-0.213, r contract=-0.151, r staff=-0.330, and r non-staff=-0.149, p=0.05). This indicated that permanent workers and staff positions have a higher level of psychological distress than contract workers and non-staff members. However, they also have a higher level of life satisfaction. Therefore, although the stress levels are higher among permanent and staff workers, a mediating factor makes their satisfaction remain higher.</p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Barriers to Understanding Health Education in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) in Yogyakarta: Qualitative Study 2022-01-31T05:30:57+07:00 Mahendro Prasetyo Kusumo Wiwik Kusumawati <p><em>Poor physical activity behavior has its roots in a lack of understanding of the importance of healthy living. This study explores health education barriers to controlling blood glucose in a patient with DM in primary health care. The Forum Group Discussion (n = 22) and interview (n = 5) methods were used to explore the patient’s desire to overcome educational barriers. Informants for the study were patients with DM aged between 26-69 years from two community health centers and two private health centers within Sleman Regency, Indonesia. The informants were then questioned about barriers to physical activity programs for controlling blood glucose. The data collected was analyzed using Opencode, and the results revealed that boring educational training is the leading cause of physical inactivity and dietary control in patients with DM. Furthermore, the use of formal language in delivering material is the cause of patient boredom to take part in the training. Also, limited health human resources have resulted in a lack of maximum education programs for patients with DM in Yogyakarta. Therefore, a tense atmosphere and the use of complex language have a negative impact on patients to change physical activity and control eating patterns. </em></p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Predictors of Dysmenorrhea and Its Impact on Quality of Life among Tribal Adolescent Girls in India 2022-01-31T05:37:31+07:00 Sharvanan E Udayar Devika P Jeeragyal K Kruthika <p><em>Many girls are faced with the challenge of Dysmenorrhea during their adolescent years. Therefore, this </em><em>study </em><em>aimed at finding the prevalence of Dysmenorrhea, its risk factors, and its impact on quality of life among teenage girls residing in tribal welfare hostels. </em></p> <p><em>After obtaining informed consent, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 582 adolescent girls residing in tribal welfare hostels in southern India. Data was collected </em><em>by purposive sampling technique, and</em><em> the mean, standard deviation and percentages, and frequencies were applied for summarizing the continuous and quantitative variables. Additionally, multinominal</em><em> regression analysis was </em><em>performed </em><em>to determine the factors associated with Dysmenorrhea. </em></p> <p><em>The results indicated the prevalence of Dysmenorrhea was 58.4%, while 48.8% of participants reported physical premenstrual symptoms</em><em>. Furthermore, the</em><em>re is </em><em>a significant association between those experiencing moderate to severe pain and Dysmenorrhea (p&lt;0.000). </em><em>A</em><em>ssociation between factors such as prolonged menstrual duration [AOR,</em><em>3.4</em><em>(95%CI,</em><em>1.49-7.81</em><em>)], those having moderate [AOR,</em><em>5.78</em><em>(95% CI,</em><em>1.96-17.02</em><em>)] to severe menstrual bleeding [AOR, </em><em>5.1</em><em> (95% CI,</em><em> 1.78-14.08</em><em>)], family history [AOR, </em><em>3.5</em><em> (95%CI,</em><em>2.30-5.54</em><em>)]and somatic symptoms [AOR,</em><em>2.03</em><em> (95%CI,</em><em> 1.33-3.08</em><em>]</em><em> were statistically significant</em><em>.</em></p> <p><em>In conclusion,</em> <em>Dysmenorrhea had a significant impact on quality of life since the girls could not attend routine activities. Therefore, incorporating reproductive health issues in education programs will encourage treatment-seeking behavior among the girls. </em></p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Literature Review: Cost Calculation of Blood Services in Some Countries (Based on HDI Level) 2022-01-31T05:39:01+07:00 Khisula Riski Andani Ernawaty Ernawaty <p>The blood processing replacement costs (BPPD) establishment in Indonesia is an incomprehensive cost calculation for blood services. Several countries have calculated costs for blood services at health care institutions through an activity framework plus generated blood products and components costs as well as blood services fees. This study aims to discuss the cost calculation method for blood services carried out in Zimbabwe, Canada, United Kingdom, Greece and India. It was a literature review conducted by accessing scientific articles sourced from the Google Scholar database. A total of 11 articles were collected, but only 5 with relevant topics were discussed. Blood service cost calculation provides information of various activities involved in producing a product and service. Also, blood service framework model determination was needed as a cost center for estimation to prevent duplication. Each activity's total output from the cost center was used in calculating the unit cost of the activity or product. The blood products and components include whole blood, red blood cells, platelets, plasma (FFP), and cryoprecipitate. Each of the blood components require a different cost determined by the activity involved in their production.</p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Factors Influencing Malnutrition of Children Aged 24-60 Months Old in Flores Timur, Nusa Tenggara Timur 2022-01-31T05:40:35+07:00 Yasinta Betan Monthana Hemchayat Kanokwan Wetasin <p>Malnutrition remains a global health problem, especially in developing countries such as Indonesia. This study aimed to determine factors influencing the nutritional status of children aged 24-60 months in rural communities of Flores Timur, Nusa Tenggara Timur. A cross-sectional design involving purposeful sampling was used to conduct a study in five rural villages. The sample size for the study involved 250 mothers with children aged between 24-60 months. Data collection was conducted using questionnaires with information regarding socio-demographic, dietary intakes, diseases, child care practices, and anthropometric measurement. Furthermore, a multivariate binary logistic regression was employed for the data analysis. Results from binary logistic regression revealed that energy intake (OR=8.99), protein intake (OR=6.95), the occurrence of infectious diseases (OR=6.45), the frequency of infectious diseases (OR=6.00), and age of introduction of complementary foods (OR=34.55) significantly influenced nutritional status in rural communities. Based on these findings, health workers should promote the appropriate time for giving complementary foods to children. Moreover, interventions should be made for children with an acute respiratory infection and/or diarrhea over the past six months to maintain nutritional status.</p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Management of COVID-19 Infection and Midwifery Care of a Woman with Breast Cancer - A Case Report 2022-01-31T05:42:56+07:00 Reyhan Aydın Doğan Selma Hancıoğlu Aytaç <p><em>Breast cancer is among the common cancer types in women, with an incidence of 1/3000 in pregnancy.</em> <em>The outbreak</em><em> of the </em><em>COVID-19 pandemic has not only affected society but also heightened the risk of patients with underlying conditions, especially cancer victims.</em> <em>The prolongation of the treatment period complicates the process that entangles breast cancer patients. In this case, the follow-up period of the patient diagnosed with breast cancer in the third trimester of their second pregnancy was discussed. The frequency of follow-up during the postpartum COVID-19 period significantly decreased, and therefore, recurrence was experienced. Consequently, it is pertinent to support cancer patients during disasters and pandemics to help keep their physical and mental health. The patients should be guided in their public health follow-ups and the frequency of examinations. Also, midwife-assisted care should be provided during these follow-ups.</em></p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Premarital Sexual Behaviour Among Urban-rural School Teenagers in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia: Comparative Study 2022-01-31T05:44:20+07:00 Sartiah Yusran Astina Astina Yusuf Sabilu La Ode Muhammad Sety Akifah Akifah Farit Rezal <p>Premarital sex among teenagers keeps soaring by the day across the globe. Indonesia is faced with high levels of sexual promiscuity among adolescents. This research aimed to examine the differences in premarital sexual curiosity between teenagers in rural and urban settings. The population for the research involved 266 senior high school students drawn from Kendari city and the rural area of Ladongi, Southeast Sulawesi, using the Proportional Stratified Random Sampling technique. The research method used a cross-sectional study with a comparative design using the Mann-Whitney Test. The results revealed differences in premarital sexual behavior (p = 0.026), media information (p = 0,000), school’s roles (p = 0,000), and first age of dating (p = 0.038) between teenagers in rural and urban setting. However, there was no difference in knowledge regarding premarital sexual behavior (p = 0.159) and peer pressure (p = 0.219) between rural and urban teenagers.</p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Early Marriage in Women and the Risk of Low Birth Weight 2022-01-31T05:45:41+07:00 Muhammad Azinar Arulita Ika Fibriana Alfiana Ainun Nisa Mohammad Zen Rahfiludin Gunawan Sapto Indrianto Irfan Sholahuddin Putri Nur Tamalla Claudia Permatasari <p>Neonatal mortality, largely caused by Low Birth Weight (LBW), is a big challenge in Grobogan district, Central Java. For instance, the year 2020 recorded 111 infant mortality cases due to LBW. The following year, an additional 63 cases were reported from January- July bringing the total to 174 instances recorded in less than two years. Early marriage in women has been touted as the cause of the high LBW witnessed. Notably, Law Number 16 of 2019 set the base age at 19 years for marriage for both men and women. Statistics show that a total of 380 women got married at 19 years in 2020. However, the cases have significantly heightened to 453 in the year 2021. The research sample for this study was drawn from babies born to women aged 30 and below. The data was analyzed using the Chi-square test, whose results confirmed that residence, level of education, and employment status were related to the incidence of early marriage in women. Furthermore, it was found that women who married at 20 years and below had a greater risk (1,728 times) compared to those who gave birth between 20-30 years.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Validity of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Control Success Index (TBCSI) Instrument 2022-01-31T05:47:41+07:00 M. Choiroel Anwar Irwan Budiono Alfiana Ainun Nisa <p>The target for reducing the incidence of TB in 2019 was 245/100,000 population. However, the national TB incidence is at 321/100,000 population, implying that mapping the performance of PHC is inevitable to help accelerate control efforts. This study aims to develop an instrument, the “TB control success index” (TBCSI), and measure the TBCSI achievement of all PHC in Semarang City. Quantitative research was conducted to construct the TBCSI instrument, and a validated TBCSI instrument was used to measure the TBCSI of all PHC individuals in Semarang City. The validity test showed Aiken’s V coefficient for each TBCSI instrument question item <u>&gt;</u> 0.92. Furthermore, the TBCSI results at the Semarang City showed an average of 0.9332. The average index of the 6 TBCSI dimensions were 0.8959 (program leadership dimension); 0.8495 (TB service access dimension); 0.9667 (risk factor control dimension); 0.9797 (increase in partnership dimension); 0.9240 (increasing community independence dimension); and 0.9874 (management strengthening dimension). The TBCSI instrument was proven valid to measure the success rate of PHC in implementing TB control programs. Therefore, the TBCSI of all PHCs in Semarang City was included in the good category.</p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Contribution of Environmental Factors and Infectious Diseases Towards Infant Mortality in Rembang District 2022-01-31T05:54:19+07:00 Eram Tunggul Pawenang Siti Lailatun Nikmah <p>Statistics indicate that the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is in the ratio of 17.7/1000 live births in Rembang District, Central Java Province. Therefore, this study sought to determine the contribution of infectious diseases and environmental factors to high infant mortalities recorded in this region. The study implemented an observational analysis with a case-control design with 64 respondents, consisting of equal case and control samples. The sample was selected through purposive sampling, while data collection involved interviews and observations methods. From the results, the variables strongly related to the incidence of infant mortality were ventilate condition with an OR = 5,672 and 95% CI = 1.525 – 21.104 and infectious diseases with an OR = 4.211 and 95% CI = 1.313 – 13.508. Also, the infectious diseases and condition of ventilate variables signified an interaction with a <em>p</em>-value = 0.001.</p> 2022-01-31T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##