Neutrality Law in the Age of Digitalization: An Analysis of the Russia-Ukraine Conflict

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Mellisa Towadi
Zamroni Abdussamad
Anis Bajrektarevic
Lisnawaty W Badu
Waode Mustika


This article aims to describe the application of the concept of neutrality law in the current era with the contamination of digitalization. The main problem refers to the intervention of third countries or neutral states in the Russian conflict v. Ukraine, then questioned the existence of neutrality law in the era of digitalization. The method used is a normative juridical method with a statute approach analyzed qualitatively and descriptively. The results show that validity is needed in determining the attitude of third countries or neutral states that intervene with belligerents (Russia/Ukraine). The determination of the validity is based on the scale of the intervention provided by the third country. Validity refers to the 1907 Hague Convention and the UN Charter, which generally outlines violations of territorial sovereignty and international law. So, in conclusion, the concept of open access, broad and immeasurable digitalization, cannot be avoided in the conflict between Russia and Ukraine. This does not necessarily become a justification because the essence of the principle of neutrality and intervention is very different; the two cannot be combined unless a violation of international law indicates one. So basically, neutrality law can no longer be the primary regulation to control the attitude of a neutral state but requires new norms that shape the attitude of a neutral state so that it can be used as international customary law.

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How to Cite
Towadi, M., Abdussamad, Z., Bajrektarevic, A., Badu, L. W., & Mustika, W. (2023). Neutrality Law in the Age of Digitalization: An Analysis of the Russia-Ukraine Conflict. Lex Scientia Law Review, 7(1), 31-60.
Author Biographies

Mellisa Towadi, Faculty of Law, Universitas Negeri Gorontalo

Mellisa Towadi is a lecturer in international law. Her last education was taken from the Faculty of Law, Universitas Gadjah Mada (2014-2016). Since then, she actively collaborates with several national and international research fellows and writes in internationally and nationally reputable journals. She is also a member of the International Society of International Law Lecturers (2017-present). Since 2018, she has been dedicated to managing some academic journals. These gave her a unique insight into the need for research quality for national development.

Zamroni Abdussamad, Faculty of Law, Universitas Negeri Gorontalo

Zamroni Abdussamad has been a senior lecturer at the Faculty of Law, Universitas Negeri Gorontalo, since 2003 until now. He actively conducts tri-dharma activities regarding his comparative and state administrative law competence. He is pursuing doctoral education at the Faculty of Law, Universitas Brawijaya, and has passed his open doctoral examination.

Anis Bajrektarevic, Faculty of Law, Geneva University

Anis Bajrektarevic is a Senior Legal Officer and Permanent Representative to the UN Office in Vienna of the Intergovernmental Organization ICMPD (the 1990s). For the past 16 years, he has taught subjects of Geopolitical Affairs, International Law (including Intl. Relations, Law of IOs and EU Law) and Sustainable Development (Institutions and Instruments). In addition, he served as a pro bono expert in numerous academic institutions, think tanks and intergovernmental institutions (such as the UN ECE, OSCE, Council of Europe, American Bar, Oxford Academy of Total Intelligence, etc.). Since 2013, he has been a visiting professor of international law at the University of Geneva (graduate and postgraduate programs). The International Institute IFIMES has entrusted him as its Department Head for Strategic Studies on Asia and its Permanent Representative to Austria and Vienna-based IOs (2014–present). Prof. Bajrektarevic is the author of dozens of presentations, publications, speeches, seminars, research colloquiums, and numerous public events (round tables & study trips, etc.). His writings are frequently published in all five continents (over 70 countries and translated into 25 languages).

Lisnawaty W Badu, Faculty of Law, Universitas Negeri Gorontalo

Lisnawaty W. Badu is a senior lecturer in criminal law and human rights and serves as deputy dean for finance and personnel at the Faculty of Law, Universitas Negeri Gorontalo (2014-2023). Her last education was taken at the Faculty of Law, Universitas Samratulangi. Much of her research focuses on criminal implementation in aspects of customary law and most on the criminal policy concerning human rights contexts. Moreover, she is currently active in community service that focuses on family resilience in protecting children from crimes in the family. This is interesting because crimes against children in Gorontalo are increasing with the perpetrators' presentation from the child's own family (victim).

Waode Mustika, Faculty of Law, Universitas Negeri Gorontalo

Waode Mustika is a lecturer in International Law, especially international law of the sea, at the Faculty of Law, Universitas Negeri Gorontalo. She pursued her last education at the Faculty of Law, Universitas Gadjah Mada (2012-2014). She is currently part of the International Society of International Law Lecturers (2021-on). Moreover, currently in community service activities, she focuses on security at sea which impacts coastal communities and educating in various coastal areas in Gorontalo about the status of marine and land space utilization for coastal communities.


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