The Impact of Surveillance on Journalist Activism

Bonifasius Santiko Parikesit

Abstract


This study explored how alleged surveillance by the authorities was presented, responded to, and impacted journalists' activism. Employing the Panopticon framework, it is expected that those who become the object of surveillance change their behavior to become more submissive to authority. By means of a series of in-depth interviews with two print media journalists and one media researcher, it was found that journalists were threatened by the “disturbance” that befell them. However, this would not change them in conveying the public interest. They also adapted to the threats that came about. Many interview subjects refused to participate in this study because of the sensitivity and potential risks they received from the discussion.


Keywords


Surveillance; Journalist; Panopticism

Full Text:

PDF

References


Anderson, R. (2001). Why information security is hard-an economic perspective. In Seventeenth Annual Computer Security Applications Conference (pp. 358-365). IEEE.

Asfinawati. (2020). Peretasan Digital Apa Benar Untuk Bungkam Kritik? Satu Meja The Forum (Bag 3). Retrieved from YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kJNasiIY_BU.

Brivot, M., & Gendron, Y. (2011). Beyond panopticism: On the ramifications of surveillance in a contemporary professional setting. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 36(3), 135-155.

DRM. (2019). DRM Investigates: Twitter Accounts Behind the Hashtag #ArrestAntiPakJournalists. Retrieved from Digital Rights Monitor: https://www.digitalrightsmonitor.pk/drm-investigates-twitter-accounts-behind-the-hashtag-arrestantipakjournalists.

Foucault, M. (2012). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison. Vintage.

Gellman, B., & Poitras, L. (2013). US, British Intelligence Mining Data from Nine USInternet Companies in Broad Secret Program. Retrieved from Washington Post: https://www.washingtonpost.com/investigations/us-intelligence-mining-data-from-nine-us-internet-companies-in-broad-secret-program/2013/06/06/3a0c0da8-cebf-11e2-8845-d970ccb04497_story.html.

Kang, R., Dabbish, L., Fruchter, N., & Kiesler, S. (2015). “My Data Just Goes Everywhere:” User mental models of the internet and implications for privacy and security. In Eleventh Symposium On Usable Privacy and Security ({SOUPS} 2015)(pp. 39-52).

Lashmar, P. (2017). No more sources? The impact of Snowden’s revelations on journalists and their confidential sources. Journalism Practice, 11(6), 665-688.

Lyon, D. (Ed.). (2003). Surveillance as social sorting: Privacy, risk, and digital discrimination. Psychology Press.

Marx, G. T. (2004). What’s new about the “new surveillance”?: Classifying for change and continuity. Knowledge, Technology & Policy, 17(1), 18-37.

McQuail, D. (2010). McQuail's mass communication theory. Sage Publications.

Merriam, S. B., & Tisdell, E. J. (2015). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. John Wiley & Sons.

Mulyana, D. (2006). Metodologi penelitian kualitatif: paradigma baru ilmu komunikasi dan ilmu sosial lainnya. PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

Neuman, W. L. (2014). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches: Pearson New International Edition. Pearson Education Limited.

Raco, J. R. (2010). Metode Kualitatif (Jenis, Karakteristik, dan Keunggulannya). Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Widiasaranan Indonesia.

Rahayu, K. Y., Yogatama, B. K., & Patricia, S. (2019). Yang Vokal yang Diretas (1). Retrieved from Kompas: https://kompas.id/baca/utama/2019/09/24/yang-vokal-yang-diretas-1.

Regan, P. M. (2012). Regulating Surveillance Technologies. New York: Routledge.

Richards, N. M. (2012). The dangers of surveillance. Harv. L. Rev., 126, 1934.

RSF. (2018). Kazakhstan escalates harassment of media, confines blogger to clinic. Retrieved from Reporters Without Borders: https://rsf.org/en/news/kazakhstan-escalates-harassment-media-confines-blogger-clinic

Rusbridger, A. (2017). Journalism after Snowden. In: Bell E and Owen T (eds) Journalism after Snowden: The Future of the Free Press in the Surveillance State. New York: Columbia University Press.

Ruswandi, A. (2004). Menakar Kadar Kebebasan Pers Indonesia. Mediator: Jurnal Komunikasi, 5(2), 265-274.

Shahbaz, A., & Funk, A. (2019). Freedom on the Net 2019 Key Finding: Governments harness big data for social media surveillance. Retrieved from Freedom House: https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-on-the-net/2019/the-crisis-of-social-media/social-media-surveillance

Stein, S. (2013). Obama Administration on PRISM Program: Only Non-US Persons Outside the US are Targeted. Retrieved from Huffington Post: https://www.huffingtonpost.com.au/entry/obama-administration-prism-program_n_3399858?ri18n=true.

Susilastuti, D. N. (2000). Kebebasan Pers Pasca Orde Baru. Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik, 4(2), 221-242.

Taekke, J. (2011). Digital panopticism and organizational power. Surveillance & Society, 8(4), 441-454.

Tempo. (2020). Cara Pengecut Berangus Kebebasan. Retrieved from Tempo: https://kolom.tempo.co/read/1360644/cara-pengecut-berangus-kebebasan.

Waters, S. (2018). The effects of mass surveillance on journalists’ relations with confidential sources: a constant comparative study. Digital Journalism, 6(10), 1294-1313.

Whitten, A., & Tygar. J. D. (1999). Why Johnny can’t encrypt: A usability evaluation of PGP 5.0. USENIX Security Symposium. Retrieved from Usenix: https://www.usenix.org/conference/8th-usenix-security-symposium/why-johnny-cant-encrypt-usability-evaluation-pgp-50

Woodhams, S. (2019). Social Media in Asia: A New Frontier for Mass Surveillance and Political Manipulation. Retrieved from The Diplomat: https://thediplomat.com/2019/11/social-media-in-asia-a-new-frontier-for-mass-surveillance-and-political-manipulation.

Yin, R. K. (2016). Quantitative Research from Start to Finish. New York: The Guilford Press.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15294/fis.v47i2.27057

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2020 Forum Ilmu Sosial

License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View FIS Stats