Peran Human Capital dalam Peningkatan Resiliensi pada Masyarakat Miskin

Endang Widyastuti, Patria Mukti

Abstract


Kesejahteraan dalam hidup merupakan kondisi yang diinginkan individu. Salah satu indikator ketercapaian pembangunan sumber daya manusia adalah menurunnya tingkat kemiskinan di seluruh Indonesia. Kemiskinan memiliki multi dimensi dengan berbagai faktor yang mempengaruhi kemunculannya. Pemberdayaan masyarakat miskin sebagai upaya pengentasan kemiskinan membutuhkan penanganan multi-dimensional, salah satunya adalah menggunakan pendekatan psikologis. Kapasitas psikologis tersebut antara lain adalah kemampuan resiliensi dan optimalisasi human capital. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan pemahaman awal peran human capital dalam meningkatkan resiliensi masyarakat miskin. Metode penelitianiyang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode penelitian kualitatif dengan pendekatan studi kasus. Pengumpulan data penelitian menggunakan open-ended questioner. Peningkatan kredibilitas data penelitian diupayakan melalui perpanjangan keikutsertaan, mengadakan pengamatan secara teliti, cermat, serta pengecekan teman sejawat. Penelitian ini melibatkan 20 subjek/partisipan. Pemilihan subjek penelitian berdasarkan kriteria: masyarakat yang berada di bawah garis kemiskinan, memiliki sumber penghasilan informal, dan mendapatkan akses bantuan ekonomi dari pemerintah. Analisis data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah analisis deskriptif. Tahapan penelitian yang digunakan meliputi analisis kancah penelitian, kajian pustaka, pengumpulan data kemudian dianalisis dengan cara mendeskripsikan data yang telah dikumpulkan, pengkategorian, dan pengambilan kesimpulan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa adversity quotient, optimisme, self-efficacy, locus of control dan dukungan sosial, serta usia, tingkat pendidikan, dan ekonomi berperan dalam membentuk resiliensi masyarakat pra-sejahtera.

Welfare in life is a condition that is desired by the individual. One indicator of the achievement of human resource development is the decline in poverty levels throughout Indonesia. Poverty has multi dimensions with various factors that influence its emergence. Empowerment of the poor as an effort to reduce poverty requires multi- dimensional treatment, one of which is using a psychological approach. Psychological capacity includes resilience and optimization of human capital. The purpose of this study was to gain an initial understanding of the role of human capital in increasing the resilience of the poor. The research method used in this study is a qualitative research method with a case study approach. The research data collection used an open-ended questionnaire. Collecting research data using an open-ended questionnaire. Increasing the credibility of research data is sought through extension of participation, conducting careful observations and checking with colleagues. This study involved 20 subjects/participants. The selection of research subjects was based on the following criteria: people who are below the poverty line, have informal sources of income, and have access to economic assistance from the government. Analysis of the data used is descriptive analysis. Stages of research include analysis of the research scene, literature review, data collection to be analyzed by describing data that has been collected, categorizing, and drawing conclusions. The results showed that adversity quotient, optimism, self- efficacy, locus of control and social support, as well as age, level of education and economy played a role in shaping the resilience of underprivileged communities.


Keywords


kemiskinan, resiliensi, human capital.

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DOI: 10.15294/intuisi.v13i2.30332

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