River Bank Analysis in the Vicinity of Sebatik Island and Its Influence to Determine Boundary of Indonesia-Malaysia

Ardiawan Jati(1), Danar Guruh Pratomo(2),

(1) Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember
(2) Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember


River as the boundary is listed in the 1915 Netherland-British Agreement with its Annex Map without any clear coordinates. This is an obstacle in tracing boundaries in the real river because where river is dynamic, changes in the river shape and river bank can occur in more than 100 years. Multi-temporal Landsat satellite imagery processed with a combination of bands (color composite) is used to observe the position of the river bank from 1989 to 2019 with visual interpretation and manual digitization. As a result, over 30 years there was a shift in the Sikapal river bank with an average of 11.4 m on the right side (Indonesia) and 15 m on the left side (Malaysia). The average shift of the Tamboe river bank is the right side 25.1 m and on the left side 8.8 m. The shift is relatively small because around the Sikapal and Tamboe rivers banks are overgrown by mangrove forests which can slow down the rate of erosion. River banks in 1989, 1999, 2009 and 2019 were used as a basis for delimitation of the Indonesia-Malaysia boundary using a three-stage approach. As a result, there are differences in the shape of the boundary line although it is small. However, the river area of Indonesia and Malaysia still has a proportional ratio of 1: 1.03 in 1989, 1999, 2009 and 2019. Although the ratio is the same, the area of the river has increased by 0.08-0.11 km2.


Indonesia-Malaysia Boundary; 1915 Netherland-British Agreement; River bank; Border Line; Spatial Data

Full Text:



Sosrodarsono, Suyono. (1983). Hidrologi untuk Pengairan. Pradnya Paramita, Jakarta.

Jones, S. B. (1945). Boundary Making; A Handbook for Statesmen, Treaty Editors, and Boundary Commissioners. William S. Hein & Co., Inc., Buffallo, New York.

Arsyad. (2006). Konservasi Tanah dan Air. Bandung

Frevert, et. al. (1950). Soil and Water Conservation Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York.

Prahasta, E. (2008). Remote Sensing Praktis Penginderaan Jauh & Pengolahan Citra Dijital dengan Perangkat Lunak ER Mapper. Informatika. Bandung.

Ngyuyen, L.D. et. al. (2010).â€Analysis Of Changes In The River banks Of Mekong River–Vietnam By Using Multi-temporal Remote Sensing Dataâ€. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Science, Volume XXXVIII, Part 8, Kyoto, Japan, 2010

Dabojani, D. Mithun, D. Kanti, K.K. (2013). â€River Change Detection and Bankline Erosion Recognition using Remote Sensing and GISâ€. Forum geografic. Volume XIII, Issue 1 (June 2014), pp. 12-17

Hadi, S., Abidin, H.Z., Priyatna, K. (2015). “On Reliability of the Annex Map of the 1915 Land Boundary Treaty between Indonesia and Malaysiaâ€. FIG Working Week 2015 From the Wisdom of the Ages to the Challenges of the Modern World Sofia, Bulgaria, 17-21 May 2015

Sukojo, B. M. (2012). Penginderaan Jauh (Dasar Teori & Terapan). ITS-Press. Surabaya.

Lillesand, T.M., Kiefer R.W., dan Chipman J.W. (2004). Remote Sensing And Image Interpretation. Fifth Edition. New York : John Wiley & Sons.

Badan Informasi Geospasial. (2016). Digitasi Unsur Peta Dasar Validasi Peta Rencana Tata Ruang. Sekertariat BIG. Cibinong.

International Court of Justice. (2009). Maritime Delimitation in The Black Sea (Romania V. Ukraine). The Hague: International Court of Justice.

Arsana I. M. A. (2007). Batas Maritim antar Negara. Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta.

Aher, S.P. et. al. (2012).â€River Change Detection and Bank Erosion Identification using Topographical and Remote Sensing Dataâ€. International Journal of Applied Information Systems (IJAIS) – ISSN : 2249-0868. Foundation of Computer Science FCS, New York, USA. Volume 2– No.3, May 2012 – www.ijais.org

Nurdin, Amin. (2015). Penentuan Opsi Garis Batas Negara Antara Indonesia dan Malaysia di Pantai Barat Pulau Sebatik, Terusan Tamboe dan Terusan Sikapal. Tesis Magister Teknik Geodesi dan Geomatika. Institut Teknologi Bandung. Bandung.

Badan Informasi Geospasial. (2019). Laporan Perundingan Common Border Datum Reference Frame (CBDRF) Indonesia-Malaysia Tahun 2019. Pusat Pemetaan Batas Wilayah. Bogor.


  • There are currently no refbacks.