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Author Guidelines

[The TITLE of the paper should be centered on the page, typed in capitalized bold 14-point Times New Roman.]

[The author’s identities should include at least complete name, email address, and affiliation.]

           First Author’s Name   Second Author’s Name
First Author’s Email Address  Second Author’s Email Address
       First Author’s Affiliation Second Author’s Affiliation

[The heading ABSTRACT should be left justified. The abstract (150-250 words) is a brief summary of the paper, allowing readers to quickly review the main points and purpose of the paper. It should contain at least research background, research questions or purposes, methods, results, and conclusions.]
Keywords: [The author(s) can list up to five keywords or brief phrases related to the paper.]

[The INTRODUCTION should present the problem that the paper addresses. Write with clarity about issues that the reader must know in order to fully appreciate the rest of the paper. The body of the text should be left justified in 12-point Times New Roman.]

[This part, METHODOLOGY, describes at least the research design, research site, participants, instruments and procedures.]

[DISCUSSION presents results of the research that answer the research question(s). If the discussion consists of main headings and sub-headings, the format is as the following:
Headings should be in bold, left justified and in 12-point Times New Roman.
Sub-headings should be italicized in 12-point bold Times New Roman.
Sub-sub-headings (if any) should be italicized also in 12-point Times New Roman.

[Number all tables sequentially as you refer to them in the text (Table 1, Table 2, etc.), likewise for figures (Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.). Data in a table that would require only two or fewer columns and rows should be presented in the text. More complex data are better presented in tabular format. Figures are visual representations including graphs, charts, and drawing. LANGUAGE CIRCLE JOURNAL OF LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE requires both tables and figures to be represented as italized bold headings followed by a title. E.g.
   Table 1. Title of the particular table
   Figure 1. Title of the particular figure

[A concluding short section should be included. As well as conclude an inquiry response it also summarizes the main points of the paper.]

Koller, W. 1995. The concept of equivalence and the object of translation studies, TARGET 7. 191 – 222.
Leckie-Tarry, H. 1995. Language and Context a Functional Linguistic Theory of Register. London and New York: Pinter.
Leech, G.N. dan M.H. Short. 1981. Style in Fiction: A Linguistic Introduction to English Fictional Prose. London and New York: Longman.
Machali, R. 1998. Redefining Textual Equivalence in Translation with Special Reference to Indonesian-English. Jakarta: The Translation Center.
Rice, P. and P. Waugh (ed.). 1996. Modern Literary Theory (3rd ed.). London: Arnold.
Rocco, T. S. (n.d.) Critical reflection in practice: experiences of a novice teacher. Online [accessed 03/15/00]


1. Recommended APA referencing formats for In-Text Citations
In-Text Citations
Citations are required for all print and electronic sources. It is extremely important to acknowledge the ideas or the work of others with properly constructed and accurate citations. Below are two ways in which a researcher’s work may be cited properly by another author:
Example A (direct). According to Richards (2010), there are both “macro” and “micro” reasons why many postgraduate researchers fail to complete a research dissertation.

Example B (indirect). Postgraduate researchers often fail to complete a research dissertation for a combination of reasons (Richards, 2010).

Page numbers are required with all direct quotations. The citation should be placed immediately after the quote, even when it is not at the end of the sentence. For example, changes to APA style “are not only permissible but also desirable” (APA, 2001, p. 322) when they are not suitable for the needs of the paper. As shown in the example, quotations can be cited with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication, putting the page number in parentheses at the end of the quotation before the ending punctuation mark. In general, no quotation marks are required when paraphrasing ideas. Likewise, page numbers or other indication of specific parts of a source is not necessary unless a specific part of the text is being referenced.

Block Quotations
When a quotation is more than 40 words in the text, authors are instructed to use block quotation format. The entire quote is indented 10 spaces and the reference follows the punctuation. As Patil (2010) explains:
These problems stem from several reasons such as the nature of the English alphabet, the letter-sound disparity of the English language, and the reverse directionality of the English writing system, as compared to Arabic writing system. These factors lead to bad reading habits like fixation, regression, sub-vocalization, and reverse visualization (p. 19).

2. Recommended APA ‘List of References’ Formats
The formatting of a List of References
As a rule LANGUAGE CIRCLE JOURNAL OF LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE applies APA format which prescribes a List of References at the end an academic paper. The List of References section should be indented after the first line. Capitalize the main words in the title of journal articles or books. Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals. All resources cited in the text must appear in List of References section, and vice versa. If a resource is not cited in the text, it should not appear in this section, as it would in a bibliography.
References should be listed alphabetically by the last name of the author and entered in hanging style; that is, the first line of the entry should be left justified, with the following lines intended five spaces. If there are two or more entries by the same author, references should be listed by year of publication, starting with the earliest.

For each author, the last name should be listed, followed by a comma and the first (and middle) initials, followed by periods. Multiple authors in one reference must be separated with commas and theampers and (“&”) rather than the word "and" before the final author. After the author(s) comes the year and followed by a period.
For a journal reference, authors must italicize the title of the journal and the volume number, noting that issue numbers are typically not included. Also the main words of journal articles, book titles and journal names will all be capitalized. Book title and journal names will also be italicized. Book references also require the city, state (as a two-letter abbreviation without periods), and the publisher's name. For a more inclusive list of guidelines on the formatting required for reference list, please refer directly to APA guidelines.

The citation of books in a list of references should include the main title in italics with the main words capitalized. Any sub-titles are generally not capitalized. The citation of articles from books should first cite the title of the article and then the citation details of the book – including an acknowledgement of that books editor (ed.) or editors (eds.). If the book is a new or revised edition (i.e. Rev. ed.) this information should also be included.
Krashen, S.D. 1982. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon.
Naiman, N., Frölich, M., Stern, H.H., &Todesco, A. 1978. The Good Language Learner. Research in Education Series 7, The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.
Nigh, B. 2007. Language Education Studies (rev. ed.). New York: TESOL Press.
Pratkanis, A.R., Brekler, S.J., O'Malley, J.M., & Chamot, A.U. 1990. Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Watson, M. 2006. The Clash of Language Learning Styles.. In M. Moscovitch (ed.), Second Language Acquisition Styles (pp. 145-172). New York: Cranium Press.

Journal Articles
When citing journal articles in a list of reference the title of the article should remain non-italicized. The name of the journal is instead italicized. The main words of the primary title should be italicized – but any subtitles are generally not capitalized. LANGUAGE CIRCLE JOURNAL OF LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE convention is to include a succinct reference to volume, edition and page numbers (e.g. 19, 2, 131-141).

If references are used from regular editions of a journal without an edition number then the date of publication should include the specific date of publication.
Ramirez, A.G. 1986. Language Learning Strategies Used by Adolescents Studying French in New York Schools, Foreign Language Annals, 19, 2, 131-141.
Jin Y. & Yang, H. 2006. The English Proficiency of College and University Students in China. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 19,1, 21-36.
O'Malley, J.M., Chamot, A.U., Stewner-Manzanares, G., Kupper, L., & Russo, R.P. 1985. Learning Strategies Used by Beginning and Intermediate ESL Students, Language Learning, 35, 1, 21-46.
Posner, M.I. 1993, October 29. Seeing the Mind. Language, 262, 73-74

Other Print Sources
Where applicable other print sources should aim to either replicate the format of book and journal references. Where all details cannot be identified then the principle of referencing is to detail information about the author, date of publication, a title, the organizational auspices or authority for publication, and specific information (especially page numbers) where the article can be located. If the individual author or authors cannot be identified then at least the organization responsible if possible.

Government Document
National Institute of Language Education. 1990. The Training of Language Educators (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Dissertation, Unpublished
Last name, F. N. Year. Title of dissertation (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Name of Institution, Location.

Report from a Private Organization
American Language Association. 2000. Language Teaching Guidelines (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Conference Proceedings
Schnase, J. L., & Cunnius, E. L. (Eds.). 1995. Proceedings from CSCL '95: The First International Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Electronic Sources
As well as follow the general advice for “other print sources”, the LANGUAGE CIRCLE JOURNAL OF LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE convention for electronic sources is to generally refer to the online site where an item or article can be accessed – i.e.

“available at URL”. Where dating of access is relevant then the reference should be “Retrieved Month, Day, Year from UTL”. Online academic journals should include the general information as for print journals followed by location online or date retrieved.
Author, I. Date. Title of Webpage. Website publisher or organization,

Available at URL
Grant, L. 2005. College Students Expected to Load Up on Gadgets. University Archives, Available at gear/2005-08-16-college-gadgets_x.htm
Chowdhury, M. 2006, Summer. Students’ Personality Traits and Academic Performance: A five-factor model perspective. College Quarterly 9(3). Retrieved January 30, 2008 from http://www.senecac
Author, I. 2007. Brilliant Article. Language Education Online, 16, 1, Available at

3. Recommended APA Tables and Figures
According to APA style Tables and Figures have special rules, author should consider the following

  • The title of the table should be brief, clear and comprehensive.
  • Title is placed above the table NOT below it.
  • The researcher should be consistent in the formatting and vocabulary of all tables when writing a paper.
  • The table title should be italicized, but not the table number.
  • Number tables in the order they are first mentioned in text. Do not write “the table above” or “the table below.”
  • Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of all headings. If a word is a proper noun, however, be sure to capitalize the first letter anyway.
  • Each column has a heading
  • Standard abbreviations and symbols, such as % or no. may be used in headings without further explanation.
  • If the table is from another source, include a note below the table specifying whether it is from another source or adapted from another source.
  • Notes are placed below the table.
For more details please read APA Tables and Figures owl/resource/560/19/


Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  3. Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  4. The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  5. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  6. If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

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