Mode and Dimension of Facilitation in Student-Centred Learning Approach: A Comparison of Teaching Experience

Alias Masek


This study is based on the Heron Facilitation Model, to evaluate the dimension and mode of facilitation of facilitators who are using Student-Centred Learning (SCL) as an approach in delivering theoretical knowledge. A survey study was conducted, involving 177 facilitators from multiple backgrounds. The findings show that the six dimensions of facilitation were rated at a high level and cooperative mode was most often applied in the SCL approach. There is no difference in mode and dimension applied by young and senior facilitators. Thus, experience and field of education discipline do not generally predict an effective facilitation measure for theoretical delivery.


student-centred learning, facilitation, pedagogical skills, Heron facilitation model

Full Text:



Boopathiraj, C. & Chellamani, K. (2013). Analysis of test items on difficulty level and discrimination index in the test for research in education. International Journal of Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research, 2, 189-193.

Brandes, D., & Ginnis, P. (1996). A Guide to Student-Centred Learning. United Kingdom: Stanley Thornes.

Cameron, E. (2005). Facilitator Made Easy: Practical Tips To Improve Meetings And Workshops. London: Kogan Page.

Collins, J. W., & O'Brien, N. P. (2003). Greenwood Dictionary of Education. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Dantzker, M.L., & Hunter, R. D. (2012). Research Methods for Criminology and Criminal Justice. Canada: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Dolmans, D. H. J. M., Gilselaers, W. H, Moust, J. H. C., De Grave, W., Wolfhagen, I. H. A. P., & Vleuten, V. (2002). Trends in research on tutor in problem-based learning: conclusion and implications for educational practice and research. Medical Teacher, 24, 173-180.

doi: 10.1080/014215902201252

Ertmer, A. P., & Simons, K. D. (2000). Scaffolding Teacher’s Effort to Implement Problem-based Learning. Retrieved from http:/www.edci.purdue/ertmer/docs/Ertmer-LC05.pdf

Galajda, D. (2012). Teacher’s action zone in facilitating group dynamics. Lingvarm Arena, 3, 89 – 101.

Heron, J. (2006). The Compute Facilitator’s Handbook. London: Kogan Page.

Ibrahim, A. (2004). Pembelajaran Berpusatkan Pelajar dan Kaitannya Dengan Pembangunan Diri dan Peluang Pekerjaan. Paper presented at the Seminar Penyelidikan Pendidikan Guru Peringkat Kebangsaan. Malaysia: Universiti Malaysia Pahang.

Jamaludin, R., & Osman, S.Z.M. (2014). The use of flipped classroom to enhance engagement and promote active learning. Journal for Education and Practice, 5, 124-131.

Johnston, S., & Cooper, J. (1997). Quick-thinks: Active-thinking tasks in lecture classes and televised instruction. Cooperative Learning and College Teaching, 8, 2-7.

Krejcie, R.V. & Morgan, D.W. (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30, pp.607-610.

Michaelson, L. K., & Black, R. H. (1994). Building Learning Teams: The Key to Harnessing the Power of Small Groups in Higher Education, in Collaborative Learning: A Sourcebook for Higher Education. State College, PA: National Center for Teaching, Learning & Assessment.

Michaelson, L. K., Knight, A. B., & Fink, L. D. (2004). Team-Based Learning: A Transformative Use of Small Groups in College Teaching. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.

Mokgele, E. L. (2006). Facilitation as a teaching strategy: experiences of facilitator. Curationis, 29, 61 – 69. Retrieved from

Nulty, D. D. (2008). The adequacy of response rates to online and paper surveys: what can be done? Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 33, 301 – 314.

O’Neill, G., Moore, S., & McMullin, B. (2005). Emerging Issues in the Practice of University Learning and Teaching. Dublin: All Ireland Society for Higher Education (AISHE)

Perera, R., Heneghan, C., & Badenoch, D. (2008). Statistics toolkit. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing SPAD.

Prendiville, P. (2008). Developing Facilitation Skills: A Handbook for Group Facilitators. Ireland: Combat Poverty Agency.

Sabburg, J., Fahey, P., & Brodie, L. (2006). Physics Concept: Engineering PBL at USQ. River Phys, 105.

Salleh, B., Othman, H., Selamat, A., Esa, A. & Sulaiman, A. (2009). Problem Based Learning across diverse engineering discipline at UTHM. International Journal of Learner Diversity, 1, 113-126.

Schleicher, A. (2012). Preparing Teachers and Developing School Leaders for the 21st Century. Brussels: OECD.

Smith, K. A., Sheppard, S. D., Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2005). Pedagogies of engagement: classroom-based practices. Journal of Engineering Education, 94, 1-16.

Spratt, M., Pulverness, A., & William, M. (2005). The Teacher’s Knowledge Test Course. London: TKT University of Cambridge Press.

Stead, D. R. (2005). A review of the one-minute paper. Active Learning in Higher Education, 6, 118–131.

Tsang, V. H. M., Shahrill, M., & Malik, F. N. F. (2006). The Leadership Styles of Secondary Mathematics Teacher in Brunei Darussalam. Paper presented at the SOCIOINT-14 – International Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities, Istanbul, Turkey.

Turan, S., Elcin, M., Odabasi, O., Ward, K., & Sayek, I. (2009). Evaluating the role of tutors in problem-based learning session. Procedia Social and Behavioural Sciences, 5 – 8.

Unal, Z., & Unal A. (2012). The impact of years of teaching experience on the classroom management approaches of elementary school teachers. International Journal of Instruction, 5, 41 – 58.

Yasar, A. (2008). Classroom management approaches of primary school teacher (Unpublished master’s thesis). Middle East Technical University, Turkey.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.